Uman NUH | today: 07/27/2022

Fatty acid composition of seeds of different peanut varieties and its nutritional value

Author(s) Lubych V.V., Candidate of Agricultural Science, Lecturer of Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Войтовська В.І., , ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2022 issue Issue 100. Part 1
pages 34-40 index UDK 665.127-047.44:631.526.3:633.368
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2022-100-1-34-40 (Link)
Abstract Introduction. Peanut – a crop characterized by high fat content with essential carboxylic acids. The creation of new varieties of this crop and climate change necessitate a more detailed study of the biochemical composition of seeds. Methods. Laboratory, chemical, physico-chemical, statistical, computational. Results. In the seeds of different peanut varieties, the total content of fatty acids varied from 44.735 to 45.268 %. The highest content of fatty acids from the group of MUFA – 21.408–24.049 %. The content of saturated fatty acids was the lowest – 6.286–6.984 %. The main fatty acid in peanut is oleic one (C18: 1), the share of which was 46.5–52.0 % depending on peanut variety. The share of oleic acid varied from 32.5 to 36.8 %, and the share of palmitic acid – from 11.0 to 12.5 %. The share of stearic (C18: 0) acid was 2.8 %, and the share of other fatty acids was the lowest – 0.02–0.6 %. Under the consumption of 100 g of peanut seeds, 44.7–45.3 % of the daily requirement of the human body for fat can be provided. It should be noted that if the human body needs 100 g of fat, 30 % should be of vegetable origin and 70% of animal one. Therefore, 100 g of peanut seeds fully satisfies the needs of the human body with vegetable fats. Conclusions. It was found that the main fatty acid in peanut seeds is oleic one (C18: 1), the share of which is 46.5–52.0 % depending on the variety. The share of MUFA in peanut seeds is the highest – 47.7–53.1 %, the share of PUFA is 32.6–36.9, and the share of EFA is the lowest – 13.9–15.5 %, depending on peanut variety. The composition of EFA contains the most palmitic (C16: 0) – 78.0–80.3 % of their amount, MUFA – oleic (C18: 1) – 97.4–97.6 of their amount, PUFA – linoleic (C18: 1) 2) – 99.7–99.8 % of their amount. Under the consumption of 100 g of peanut seeds, 44.7–45.3 % of the daily requirement of the human body for fat can be provided. The share of EFA by 46.3–51.7 % and MUFA by 79.5–88.8 % corresponds to the optimum quantity of these fatty acid groups. However, the share of PUFA by 326.0–369.0 % exceeds their optimum quantity in peanut fat. It is recommended to grow Valencia Ukrainska, Valencia 433, Stepniak, Virginia 936, Peris peanut varieties, as the seeds have high fat content and the highest integral score.
Key words peanut, variety, seeds, fatty acid, integral score
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