Uman NUH | today: 11/11/2022

Comparative characteristics of tetraploid wheat species in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe

Author(s) Novak Zh.M., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Polianetska I.О., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Lubych V.V., Candidate of Agricultural Science, Lecturer of Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2022 issue Issue 100. Part 1
pages 215-224 index UDK 631.52:633.11
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2022-100-1-215-224 (Link)
Abstract Introduction. One of the leading problems of biological science is the enrichment of flora by creating new forms and varieties of plants that best meet human needs. Important in solving these problems belongs to remote hybridization, a method that can significantly enrich the gene pool of cultivated plants and create a particularly broad formative process, which creates unique forms that are significantly different from those that existed before. Research methods. Field, mathematical and statistical. Results. The collection of spring wheat specimens of Uman National University of Horticulture includes tetraploid wheat species – Triticum durum Desf., Triticum carthlicum Nevski, Triticum dicoscum (Schrank) Schuebl, Triticum ispahanicum Heslot, Triticum Jakubum, Jakitum and Jakritumum. The studied cultivars differed greatly from each other - the average number of productive stems was 3.23–6.36 million productive stems per 1 ha. The lowest indicators were observed in the species Triticum polonicum and Triticum aethiopicum – respectively 3.23 and 4.01 million units / ha, which was inferior to the indicator of durum wheat variety Descendants by 38 and 22 %. Varieties of Triticum persicum and Triticum dicoscum differed in this indicator. According to the results, a close correlation was observed between the weight of 1000 grains and yield, the average positive relationship - between the number of productive stems and yield, ear length and number of ears in the ear, number of ears in the ear and weight of 1000 grains and yield. The average negative relationship was observed between the number of productive stems and the length of the ear. There was a weak correlation between the number of productive stems and the number of spikelets in the ear and the weight of 1000 grains, the length of the ear and the yield and the length and length of the ear and the weight of 1000 grains. Conclusions. The smallest number of productive stems was formed by cultivars 144/20 (Triticum polonicum) and 145/20 (Triticum aethiopicum). Breeding numbers 142/20 (Triticum dicoscum) and 143/20 (Triticum ispahanicum) exceeded the standard for two years in a row according to the analyzed indicator. Variety 144/20 had the longest ear in two years of research (9.0 cm), short ears were observed in biotypes 141/20 (5.1 cm), 142/20 (5.4 cm), 143/20 (5.5 cm) ) and 145/20 (5.3 cm), which was less than the standard by 22; 18; 15 and 19%. Breeding numbers of the species Triticum persicum: 139/20 and 140/20 on the length of the ear were similar to the durum wheat variety Descendant. The number of spikelets in the ear averaged 20.3 pieces in the standard, in varieties 139/20; 140/20; 141/20; 142/20; 143/20; 144/20 and 145/20 – 14.5 respectively; 14.8; 15.4; 17.4; 15.7; 20.5 and 16.7 pcs. The highest rate was observed in the biotype 144/20 (Triticum polonicum), the lowest - in the species Triticum persicum 139/20 and 140/20. It was found that the weight of 1000 grains had the greatest impact on grain yield.
Key words variety sample, wheat, number of productive stems, spikelet length, number of spikelet, weight of 1000 grains, yield
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