||The protein-proteinase complex of grain of different species (soft, club, Ethiopian), varieties and lines of wheat has been analyzed. The content of protein, fiber and its hydration capacity, isoelectric point of protein, its fractional composition depending on weather conditions and a variety are determined. The protein content depends on the weather conditions in the period of ripening the kernels: the optimum air temperature and soil moisture deficit increases its content by 0.6-1.5 points. In addition, it depends on the affect of plants causing leaf diseases.
The content of protein in wheat grain varies in a wide range: from 10.9% in the Victoria variety of Odessa to 18.6% in the Kulundynka variety. According to this indicator, the grain of the lines obtained by hybridization of Triticum aestivum / Triticum spelta has the advantage, since the protein content is 23-58% higher than the standard (the Podolianka variety) - 13.3%. This indicator in the grain of the Umanchanka line is 14.6%, while in the grain line of Ethiopian 1 - 20.3%. The protein content depends on the weather conditions in the period of the kernels ripening: the optimum air temperature and the soil moisture deficit increase its content by 0.6-1.5 points. In addition, it depends on the affect of plants causing leaf diseases. The content of amino acids in the grain, the amino acid and the integral score of the varieties and lines of wheat depends on their origin. According to the quality composition, glutamine acid, proline and leucine predominate. The best balanced amino acid content has the grain of the lines obtained by hybridization of Triticum aestivum / Triticum spelta, and introgressive lines. The grain of these lines has the highest content of nonprotein nitrogen-containing components, which are represented by free amino acids - from 0.45% to 1.79%.
The isoelectric point of the wheat protein varied in a wide range: from 4.3 to 6.5. The highest was the protein of the Kokhana variety, the Umanchanka line and NAK46 / 12 - 5.6-6.5 or more by 12-30%. The lowest was in the Martin of Odessa, Myrkhad, Suason and NAK46 / 12 - 4.3-4.9 or less by 2-14% compared with the standard variety Podolianka (5.0). The isoelectric point of the protein of the remaining varieties and lines varied from 5.0 to 5.3.
On average, over five years of research, the fiber content in grain of winter wheat varieties varies from 22.6% to 40.6%, while in grain lines obtained by hybridization of Triticum aestivum / Triticum spelta - from 34.6% to 44.9%. However, the highest antioxidant activity has a grain of the winter wheat Chornobrova and a line of Ethiopian wheat with violet coloration of kernels – 70.2-71.3%.
The amount of leucosin and globulin content varied inversely proportional to fiber-forming proteins and the highest had a grain of soft wheat varieties Kokhana, Pannonikus, Chornobrova, Umanchanka line, NAK 46/12, NAK61 / 12 - 35-57% or more by 6-28 points compared with Podolianka variety (st).