Uman NUH | today: 06/21/2024

Productivity of different varieties and hybrids of sugar sorghum at different harvest times

Author(s) Моргун А. В., , ,
Пясецький П. І., , ,
Lubych V.V., Candidate of Agricultural Science, Lecturer of Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2022 issue Issue number 101. Part 1
pages 163-173 index UDK 631.559+[664.64.016:631.526.3:633.179:631.53.04
DOI 10.32782/2415-8240-2022-101-1-163-173 (Link)
Abstract Introduction. Sugar sorghum is a highly productive bioenergy crop that has a number of economic and valuable properties. However, the productivity of this crop depends significantly on the selection and genetic characteristics of the variety or hybrid and the harvesting period. Goal. To study the issue of formation of productivity of different varieties and hybrids of sugar sorghum at different harvest times. The results. Field germination of sugar sorghum seeds in the experiment varied from 73 to 76% depending on the variety or hybrid. The height of the plants at the end of the growing season ranged from 2.5 m in the Medovy hybrid to the highest figure of 3.3 m in the Dovista variety. The diameter of the stem was within 1.5–1.9 cm. All experimental plants formed 11–12 leaves. The weight of 10 plants was the 173 smallest in the Silosne 42 variety – 3.6 kg, in the Favorite variety – 4.0 kg, in the Honey hybrid – 4.1 kg, and the largest weight was noted in the Dovista variety – 4.7 kg. The dry matter content ranged from 20.8 to 23.8 %. The lowest overall yield during the first harvest period was noted in the Silosne 42 sugar sorghum variety – 53.0 t/ha. This indicator was 60 t/ha in the Favorite variety, 61.4 t/ha in the Honey hybrid, and the highest yield was noted in the Dovista variety – 68.5 t/ha. In addition, the highest panicle yield was observed in the Dovista variety – 4.2 t/ha. In the Favorite variety – 2.8 t/ha. The panicle yield was somewhat lower in the Honey hybrid – 2.7 t/ha, and the lowest panicle yield was recorded in the Silosne 42 variety – 2.1 t/ha. A similar trend was obtained during the II-IV harvest periods. The largest share of stems was obtained by growing the Dovista variety – 75 % and the Honey hybrid – 74 %. In the rest of the cultivars, this indicator was 69–70 % during the first harvest period. With the extension of the harvesting period, the share of stems in the vegetative mass decreased. Thus, during the second harvest period, the share of stems decreased to 70–72 %, in the third – to 63–72 %, and in the fourth – to 52–59 %, depending on the variety or hybrid. The decrease in the proportion of stems in plants was due to the increase in the proportion of leaves and panicles. Thus, during the first harvest period, the share of panicles was at the level of 4–6 %, leaves – 21–27 %, and in the fourth harvest period, 16–23 and 16–25 %, respectively. Conclusions. It was established that the yield of vegetative mass varies significantly depending on the variety or hybrid of sugar sorghum and the time of harvesting. The highest yield of stalks is provided by growing the Dovista variety – 44.2–47.9, the Honey hybrid – 40.6–45.6 t/ha, depending on the harvesting period. Vegetative mass can be collected from the third decade of July, since the proportion of stems is the highest.
Key words sugar sorghum, productivity, proportion of vegetative organs, growth phases, agrobiological indicators
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