Uman NUH | today: 11/11/2022

Anisotropic properties of specific activity of soil radionuclids and grai of soft winter wheat wheat with long-term application of fertilizers

Author(s) Hospodarenko G.M., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Lubych V.V., Candidate of Agricultural Science, Lecturer of Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Олійник О. О., , ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2022 issue Issue 100. Part 1
pages 242-252 index UDK 633.111+[631.41-021.4:631.816.3-026.63
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2022-100-1-242-252 (Link)
Abstract Prolonged systematic of mineral fertilizers contributes to increasing yielding capacity of agricultural crops. However, it can lead to significant changes in composition, properties and formation of agricultural soil regimes. The findings of the research have shown that application of mineral fertilizers leads to change of radioactive nuclides content in soil. The research was conducted under conditions of a long-term stationary field experiment, using different rates of mineral fertilizers N45P45K45, N90P90K90, N135P135K135. Specific activity of radionuclides was determined by spectrometric analysis. Using experimental results we have demonstrated that under a long-term application (50 years) different rates of mineral fertilizers effect specific activity of radioactive isotopes in soil (226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr). The specific activity of radionuclides in a podzolized chernozem and in winter wheat grain was established. Winter wheat plants accumulated 232Th at the highest levels, but the use of fertilizers reduced it in a larger mass of the crop. The absorption of radioactive nuclides by winter wheat grain grown after peas and silage corn depending on fertilization changed similar to growing it after clover as a previous crop. According to the data of specific activity of radioactive nuclides in the soil and winter wheat grain, the coefficient of their biological absorption was calculated. The level of 137Cs uptake by winter wheat plants from the soil is the highest, while the level of 90Sr uptake is the lowest. The coefficient of biological absorption of 232Th is significantly reduced with the improvement of the conditions of plant growth and plant development. The absorption of 40K from the soil is significant but it is safe for human health. Long-term application of potassium fertilizers increases the soil radioactivity due to the content of 40K and 226Ra but this radiation is safe for human health. In addition, potassium has an important ecological function being the antagonist in relation to radioactive 137Cs and 90Sr. The analysis of the specific activity of radionuclides in winter wheat grain indicates that a long-term application of fertilizers (50 years) in the field crop rotation at the indicated fertilizer rates is safe.
Key words radioactive isotopes, radium, thorium, potassium, cesium, strontium, specific activity of radioactive nuclides
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