Uman NUH | today: 06/25/2024

Selection value of new spring triticale varieties

Author(s) Lubych V.V., Candidate of Agricultural Science, Lecturer of Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2021 issue Issue number 98. Part 1
pages 7-20 index UDK 631.527+631.526.3:633.19
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2021-98-1-7-20 (Link)
Abstract Aim. To study the selection value of new spring triticale varieties according to the main economic and valuable properties (duration of the growing season, plant height, lodging resistance, resistance to diseases, tillering coefficient, grain weight from one ear, grain yield). Methods. Laboratory, mathematical and statistical, physical. Results. The duration of the growing season of spring triticale was longer compared to wheat. Thus, it was the longest in 2015–122 days, in 2014–112, and in 2013–102 days or 3–9 days more compared to wheat, except for 2014 in which the duration of the growing season of spring wheat was 117 days. This figure did not change depending on the variety of spring triticale over the years of research. The shorter growing season of spring triticale in 2013 was apparently due to the later sowing period. On average, over three years of research, the height of spring triticale plants varied from 99 to 105 cm depending on the variety. Triticale spring exceeded soft spring wheat by 2–8 %. However, Heritage durum wheat plants were the highest. This figure has changed significantly over the years of research. Thus, the highest plants were in the favourable 2014 – 108–129 cm, the shortest in the less favourable 2013 – 85–92 cm, and in 2015 – 100–106 cm. Spring triticale plants had the highest resistance to pathogens of leaf spot in 2015. In 2014, the intensity of their defeat was at the level of 4.0–4.5% with the resistance of 9 points. Triticale spring significantly exceeded the plants of both types of wheat in this respect. On the average for three years of researches, the coefficient of general spring triticale tillering made 1.56–1.65 depending on the variety. This indicator was at the level of durum wheat and 9–14 % lower than that of soft wheat. The productive tillering coefficient was 10–15 % lower than that of soft wheat. Of the five varieties of spring triticale, the highest grain yield was obtained for the cultivation of Kharkiv Oberih variety – 6.12 t/ha. Yields of Kharkiv Lebid, Kharkiv Sontsedar and Kharkiv Korovai varieties were 18–22 % higher compared to soft wheat and 7–11 % higher than durum wheat. Conclusions. Indicators of growth and development of spring triticale plants and grain yield change significantly depending on the variety and weather conditions of the growing season. The duration of the growing seasom of spring triticale is 102–122 days. Plants can be medium and very tall, lodging resistance varies from 5 to 9 points. Triticale spring has a very high resistance to main fungal diseases. Grain yield is 4.93–6.12 t/ha depending on the genotype. To obtain a high and stable grain yield, it is necessary to grow Kharkiv Korovai and Kharkiv Oberih spring triticale varieties.
Key words spring triticale, variety, growth indicators, grain yield, economically valuable properties
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