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Quality formation of spelt wheat flour bread

Author(s) Ковальов В. Б., , ,
Трембіцька О. І., , ,
Клименко Т. В., , ,
Федорчук С. В., , ,
Петухов Ю. Л., , ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2021 issue Issue number 98. Part 1
pages 254-262 index UDK 631.15:633.1:631.57(477.41/.42)
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2021-98-1-254-262 (Link)
Abstract One of the most important problems of mankind remains food, the increase in the number of allergy sufferers and the reduction of food quality and food safety, in particular. Aim. To study the issues of forming the quality of spelt wheat flour bread in Polissia. Methods. Laboratory, mathematical and statistical, physico-chemical. Results. Spelt wheat contains 12–21% more protein than modern varieties of soft wheat. Thus, when conducting research in 2018–2019 under Brusyliv district conditions on poor sandy soils, this statement was confirmed. The quality of spelt wheat bread differed significantly from that of soft wheat. Thus, Zoria Ukrainy spelt wheat bread had the correct convex shape and colour, while Darunok Podillia wheat flour did not keep its shape, had a torn concave surface and a pale grey colour. Compared to Zoria Ukrainy bread, bread made from Europe variety spelt flour had a slightly worse appearance – a light brown semi-oval surface with small cracks. The highest score on bread appearance was obtained from Zoria Ukrainy spelt wheat flour – 4–5 points, the lowest - from soft wheat – 1–2 points. This indicator of Europe variety spelt wheat was at the level of 2–4 points. The bread crumb of all wheat varieties had a large uniform but thick-walled holes or 2 points according to the rating scale. The highest bread softness was obtained from spelt wheat bread – 5 points, and in soft wheat it was at the level of 1 point. The bread crumbs colour of soft wheat and Zoria Ukrainy spelt wheat was dark, and of Europe variety – dirty yellow due to the use of wallpaper flour in the recipe. There is a direct high correlation between the grain protein content and the bread softness (r = 0.82±0.007). It is obvious that the highest culinary quality of spelt wheat bread is obtained due to its content. Conclusions. Under the same growing conditions, Darunok Podillia soft wheat was significantly inferior to spelt wheat. Bread baked from spelt wheat wallpaper flour had a better appearance, the correct shape and more pronounced taste. Europe spelt wheat grain, which is the result of Triticum aestivum/Triticum spelta hybridization, was inferior to the quality indicators of Zoria Ukrainy variety.
Key words spelt wheat, soft wheat, protein, gluten, bread, bakery quality of bread
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