Uman NUH | today: 03/12/2021

Formation of the microbiota of the rhizosphere of spelt wheat and intermediate wheatgrass and biological activity of podzolized chernozem

Author(s) Карпенко В.П., , ,
Kravets І.S., Candidate of Agricultural Science, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Adamenko D.M., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2020 issue Issue number 97. Part 1
pages 7-16 index UDK 633.19: [573. 4: 631.415.7]
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2020-97-1-7-16 (Link)
Abstract Soil microorganisms play a leading role in the formation of the nutrient regime of the soil, which determines the level of future crop harvest. A complex system of soil-plant-microorganisms is formed, with the participation of which the creation and decomposition of organic matter, the circulation of substances in nature, the preservation of fertility and the creation of an optimal level of nutrients supply. The number of amonifiers in the rhizosphere of cereals changes under the influence of the plant species. The smallest number of amonifiers was noted in the rhizosphere of the Zorya Ukraine — 183.3  28,52, in the rhizosphere of Kernza® and Khors — 202,6  68,0 and 202,2  66,4, respectively, which exceeded the spelt indicator by 10,3–10,5 %. There were 47,5–48,0 103 CFU/g soil of nitrifiers in the soil of the fallow, Khors and Kernza®, in the Zorya Ukraine — 46,0 103 CFU/g soil due to higher aeration and low soil moisture. The difference between the data on cellulolytic microorganisms of the spelе rhizosphere and wheatgrass hybrids was 6,8–9,2 %. The biological activity of the soil is one of the most important indicators of its fertility and cultivation. The most informative indicator is the level of СО2 emission, On the variant the fallow is — 0,39 mg / dm2 per hour, in other variants 0,26–0,34 mg/dm2 per hour. Cultivation of spelt without fertilization leads decrease intensity of carbon release in the 1,5. The cultivation of perennial cereal crops allows maintaining this indicator at a higher level. The intensity of fiber decomposition in the soil of fallow and wheat-wheatgrass hybrids was 66–69 %, and with spelt — 58 %. The amonification capacity in the Zarya Ukrainy variant — 7 mg N-NH4/kg of soil, and with wheat-wheatgrass hybrids at the fallow level — 8–9 mg N-NH4/kg of soil. The same trend persisted with ratio to the opposite process — nitrification. The results of microbiological analysis of the soil selected for different grain crops indicate that the root exudates of plants create favorable conditions for the vital activity of microorganisms. Comparison of the state of populations from agricultural areas with the microbiota of the biocenosis indicates the importance of including perennial grain crops in the crop rotation, which will increase the number of microorganisms in the rhizosphere and improve the conditions for the passage of soil-forming processes
Key words ecological-trophic groups of microorganisms, biological activity of soil, podzolized black earth, fallow, spelled, Khors, Kernza ®
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