Uman NUH | today: 09/06/2020

The cultivation of major crops in the Cherkasy region and monitoring their phytosanitary status

Author(s) Mostovjak I.I., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture
Category The Agronomy
year 2020 issue Випуск 96 Частина 1
pages 125-149 index UDK 632.937
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2020-96-1-125-149 (Link)
Abstract The article presents an analysis of the cultivation of the main cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats) in the territory of Cherkasy region for 20042019. The wheat crops in different years amounted to 1722 %, barley  4.4–21 %, oats  < 1 % in the territory of Cherkasy region and there is a tendency to decrease the area under these crops. If the largest areas under these crops were in 20052006 and amounted to 452465 thousand ha (3942 %), then in 2019 their area decreased in 1.8 times to 252,8 thousand ha (21,2 %). The phytopathogenic state of their cereal crops was evaluated depending on environmental factors. Among the main dominant diseases under various hydrothermal conditions, root rot was identified that affected the roots and lower internodes, powdery mildew, septoria and spotting varieties (pyrenophorosis, rhinchosporiasis, dark brown) that affected the leaves and the stem. Fusarium prevailed among the diseases of the ear, and covered (solid) and flying smut were fixed on oats. The dependence between the hydrothermal conditions of the growing season and the severity of crop diseases was established. With an increase in the hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) an increase was observed in the share of winter and spring wheat crops affected by root rot (from 25,4 to 43,5 %), leaf Septoria blight (from 6,3 to 28,4 %), fusarial spike blight (from 8,5 up to 21,2 %), when growing spring barley  fusarial spike blight (from 11,2 to 16,2 %). It was established that under severe drought and moisture deficiency, the proportion of affected crops was minimal. However, under such conditions, in some years, powdery mildew disease was detected on 70 % of the examined areas of wheat and dark brown spotting on barley by 69 % of the areas. The smallest values of the spread and development of root rot were observed in the wheat agrocenosis was recorded at HTC of 0,8–0,9, in barley agrocenosis at HTC of 1,3–1,6. The defeat of wheat and barley plants with leaf and stem diseases was the smallest at HTC 1,0–1,2. The minimum damage to spike diseases was recorded for wheat with HTC 1,3–1,6, for barley  with HTC 1,0–1,2.
Key words winter wheat, spring barley, spring oats, phytopathogenic control, hydrothermal factors, disease spread, disease development, pathogens, plant health.
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