Uman NUH | today: 09/06/2020

The influence of the duration, the method of sowing and the reduction rates on the growth and productivity of winter wheat

Author(s) Poltoretskiy S.P., Candidate of Agricultural Science, professor, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Tretiakova S., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture
Mostovjak I.I., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture
, , ,
Poltoretska N.M., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, ,
Berezovskyi A.P., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2020 issue Випуск 96 Частина 1
pages 23-52 index UDK 633.11:631.53
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2020-96-1-23-52 (Link)
Abstract Introduction. Humanity was dependent on wheat for many generations. It played a significant role in the Western Hemisphere for over 400 years. Concerning the East, it is not possible to state with certainty a period of history when a human did not use this crop. Currently, T. aestivum L. and T. durum L. are the most widespread in terms of area and bulk yield among the wide species range of Triticum genus. Triticum aestivum L. is grown on the area of over 240 million hectares. No other cereals have such volumes. However, the average annual production rate of wheat grain is far behind the rate of increase in the human population. The growing imbalance is solved by the increase in wheat production, which in turn can be achieved by increasing the crop acreage and enlarging the yield level. The maximum yield of wheat can reach 20,0 t/ha in the experimental fields, whereas its average yield in the world was only 2,86 t/ha in 2006, so this is not enough to meet the world's needs, and it is desirable to bring it up to 3,8 t/ha by 2025. Improving the species technology of growing is one of the main reserves for increasing the production of high quality grain of Triticum aestivum L. In particular, this concerns the optimization of the sowing time, sowing methods and seeding rates, which are effective agro-technical measures in realizing the productivity potential of the newest species. Material and methods. General scientific methods, in particular, such as: hypothesis, observation, analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, abstraction and generalization were used during performing the study. Own observations and literary sources on the chosen sphere of the research were the material basis. Results of the research. The analytical review of domestic and foreign literature sources on the impact of term and method of sowing on growth, productivity, weediness, infestation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by diseases and pests in different soil-and-climatic conditions was presented. It was established that scientists still do not have a consensus on the specific parameters of the implementation of these agro-measures in the result of the conducted analysis. Conclusions. It was established that scientists still do not have a consensus on the specific parameters of the implementation of these agro-measures in the result of the conducted analysis. However, most of them pointed out that, in the last 10–15 years, the optimal sowing time changed from optimally early to medium and optimally late time taking into account the specific soil-and-climatic conditions of the crop growing region. The choice of sowing time was accompanied by changes in other elements of the growing technology of winter wheat – selection of varieties in terms of maturity group, determining of seeding rate and sowing method. The impact of these agro-measures on the productivity of the sowings and the quality of the formed yield is ambiguous.
Key words winter wheat, sowing time, growth, productivity, agrocenosis density, infestation by diseases and pe
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