||One of the important processes in the cultivation of chicory salad edible and escario is the bleaching of plants, when the entire outlet of the leaves or its part is completely isolated from the action of sunlight. Bleaching of the edible organs is carried out to improve the taste and reduce the bitterness. The technological operation is carried out for 14 - 20 days before the harvest, when the leaves are completely formed. As a result, in the bleached leaves, the content of chlorophyll and anthocyanins decreases, the inner leaves become yellow or light yellowish-green tints, become crunchy and have a delicate taste.
The duration and methods of bleaching affected the decrease in the content of vitamin C. It was established that the endive Cortby variety was always characterized by a higher content of vitamin C compared with the variety Salgyr. The largest difference was observed in 2016 - 47.5%, the smallest - in the first year of cultivation - 15.8%. Indicators of vitamin C in the version without bleaching for chicory lettuce endive and escariol varieties Corby and Salgir for the years of research were noted in the range of 27.25 - 57.11 and 13.32 - 25.00%, respectively. Considering the change in weather conditions during the study years, it was found that the largest decrease in the amount of vitamin C was observed in 2015.
Studies have shown that the amount of chlorophyll in chicory leaves of lettuce endive and escariol largely depends on the variety, bleaching method, its duration, and atmospheric conditions in some years of research. Experimental studies have established that the determining factor in the quality of the whitening process is the content of chlorophyll, and the lower its content, the better is the resulting whitening effect.
The average content of chlorophyll in the leaves of the studied plants of chicory lettuce endive and escariol over the years of research was 35.98 mg. / 100 gr. raw mass. Its lowest content was noted in 2016 in Corby variety chicory plants of lettuce endive - 24.53 mg. / 100 gr. wet weight, the highest in 2017 - 65.65 mg. / 100 gr. raw mass from the Corby variety.
Methods of bleaching and their duration caused a significant decrease in the yield of the studied varieties of chicory salad. At the same time, the greatest decrease in yield was observed with the use of black fiber for bleaching - 12.74 - 33.69 t / ha, with yield in valant without bleaching (control) - 22.33 - 35.78 t / ha. The highest performance was obtained using opaque whitening hoods - 24.78 - 35.07 tons per hectare, according to the years of research. The output of commodity products when used for bleaching sockets of the tying method for chicory salad escarpials of the Salhir variety was 61 - 63%, the variety of coriander edibi - 60 - 65% of the total yield.
The use of black fiber as a bleaching method leads to a fairly significant loss of yield of 49-53%. When using the hats, the highest indicators of the output of commodity products were noted, which for the chicory salad escarpials of the Salgir variety were 16.41 - 19 +, 26 t / ha, for chicory salad edible Corbi type - 25.78 - 27.10 t / ha, or 70-76%.