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Perspectives of biologization of cultivation of leguminous crops in Ukraine

Author(s) Chynchyk O. S., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Podolsky State Agricultural and Technical University
Olifirovich S., , , Podilsky State Agrarian and Technical University
Olifirovich V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Bukovina State Agricultural Experimental Station, NAAS
Tretiakova S., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture
Category The Agronomy
year 2019 issue Issue number 94. Part 1
pages 198-207 index UDK 551.5:631.5:635.656:631.521:631.8
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2019-94-1-198-207 (Link)
Abstract Leguminous crops are of great importance in the grain and fodder balance of agroformations of Ukraine. Therefore, it is important to develop new and improve existing technological method so fincreasingproductivity of the main leguminous crops - peas, soy beans and beans. The aim of the study was to study the effect of environmentally secure ways to increase symbiotic nitrogen fixation and grain productivity of peas, soybeans and beans. As of 2017, the total sown area of leguminous crops in Ukraine has already exceeded the 1990 figure and is more than 2,3 million hectares. But at the same time its structure has substantially changed: the percent of soy has increased and the percent of peas has significantly decreased. Our studies and calculations have shown that the main leguminous crops (peas, soybeans and beans) accumulated different amounts of biologically fixed nitrogen. So, 40–90 kg/ha of biological nitrogen was recorded on peacrops. Sowing of common beans, on which 30-70 kg/ha of biological nitrogen was accumulated during the growing season, has even less capacity for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. And the greatest amount of biological nitrogen was recorded on soybean crops - 60-150 kg/ha. One of the most important elements of the technology of growing leguminous crops which affects thein crease in seed yield is its presowing treatment with biological preparations based on nitrogen-fixingbacteria. In the experiments of Podolsk State Agrarian Technical University a significantin crease of grain yield from seed inoculation was obtained from the soybean varieties Khutorianochka, Omega vinnytska and Bukovinka bean varieties. Thus, the in crease of the yield of soybean grain from the use of the biologica lproduct Rizoguminwas 0,34-0,44 t/ha or 12–15 %. The processing of Nadia beanseeds by the biological preparation Rizobofit contributed to an in crease of yield indicators by 0,09 t / ha or 5 %, the variety Bukovinka - by 0,18 t / ha or 10 %. Studies conducted by the Bukovyna State Agricultural Experimental Station of the NAAS (National Academy of Agrarian Sciences) established a significant in crease from the inoculation of seeds of Ivanka soybean variety and Bukovinka bean variety. Thus, the in crease of the yield of soybean grain varieties Ivanka from the use of Rizobofi tamounted to 0.18 t/ha, or 9 %. The processing of seeds of Nadezhda bean variety with a biological product Rizobofit contributed to an increase of theyield index by 0.09 t / ha or 5 %. So, according to our studies the bacterization of seed material with biological products based on active strains of nodule bacteria in creased the grain productivity of plants: peasby 3–4 %, soybeansby 1-15 %, beans 3–12 %.
Key words leguminous crops, peas, soybeans, beans, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, risogumin, rhizobophyte, yield
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