Uman NUH | today: 04/14/2024

Chemical composition of corn, barley extrudate with fruit-and-vegetable ingredients

Author(s) Kostetska K.V., , Lecturer of Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain (Faculty of Engineering and Technology) Uman National University of Horticulture, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Ulyanych I.F., Postgraduate, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2018 issue Issue № 92. Part 1
pages 109-119 index UDK 54.021.001:636.085.55
Abstract It was noted that it was reasonably to study quality indixes of the proposed raw material, as well as changes in its chemical composition which took place during preliminary processing, and to develop technological methods for its introduction to mixed fodder composition during production of balanced fodder. Feeding of animals with unbalanced fodder led to a disturbance of metabolism in organs and tissues, to their morphological and functional changes, as well as to a decrease in the immunity level of the organism. The authors proved that digestion of fodder with the extruded component increased by 9–10 %. Processed material was given in a whole series of phase transformations from a fragile glass-like state into a highly elastic and then into a viscous-fluid state in the process of extrusion processing. The article described changes in the chemical composition of mixed fodder grain mixtures of corn, barley with fruit-and-vegetable components and pressed skins before and after extrusion. Conducted studies showed that a significant proportion of moisture – 4,8–8,5 % which evaporated due to a high temperature and sharp changes in pressure was lost in the mixture of minced corn with fruit-and-vegetable components during extrusion. Also, a small amount of fats which partially decomposed on ether substances whose fraction decreased by 0,1–0,5 % evaporated along with moisture. Water-and-heat treatment significantly affected starch, a part of which decreased in the extruded mixture with corn by 6,9–12,8 %. In turn, increasing of vegetables content in a mixture with barley to 22,5 % caused decreasing of starch content to 52,1 and 51,3 % on dry substance. Whereas, introduction of other crops such as potato, parsnip and grape pressed skins to the fodder mixture together with barley did not cause a decrease in the content of starch and its content remained at the same level. Polysaccharides decomposed into simpler substances in particular - dextrin, which mass fraction increased by 6,1–12,0 % due to high temperatures and pressures. Also, a part of total sugars grew by 0,6– 0,8 %. On the contrary, the content of cellulose lessened for the samples with corn by 0,5–0,7 %, which in turn positively influenced the assimilation of finished fodder from extruded mixtures. Whereas, the volume of raw fiber reduced by 1,1–1,7 % in extruded fodders from barley grain; its basis was formed of cellulose, hemicellulose and intrinsic substances of cell walls (lignan, cutin, suberin) which determined the least valuable part of the fodder. The article ended with the conclusions where was noted that extrusion of grain with vegetable components improved the value of fodder by increasing of easily accessible sugars and dextrin and reducing of a part of hard-to-digest cellulose. Fodder mass after extrusion acquired pleasant organoleptic qualities which promoted its consumption. Qualitative composition of fodder mixtures became better and more accessible to animals.
Key words mixed fodder, barley, corn, fruit and vegetable components, mixture, extruding, chemical composition
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