Uman NUH | today: 06/25/2024

Structure of the phytopathogenic complex in the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) agrocenosis in the Right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

Author(s) Щетина С. В., , ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2023 issue Issue number 103. Part 1
pages 103-116 index UDK 574.34:635.646: 632.3: 632:4
DOI 10.32782/2415-8240-2023-103-1-103-116 (Link)
Abstract This study presents the results of research on the phytopathogenic complex in eggplant plantations cultivated in open-field conditions in the central part of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe region of Ukraine. The investigation, spanning from 2008 to 2022, identified a total of four virus species, five bacterial species, 10 fungal species, and four oomycete species affecting eggplant plants. Among the dominant phytopathogens were Phytophthora infestans DB, Phytophthora parasitica Dastur, Pythium debaryanu, and Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn, known to cause wilting diseases (phytophthora blight) as well as root and basal rots (black leg). Throughout the vegetative periods from 2008 to 2022, eggplant plants exhibited susceptibility to phytophthora blight, fusarium, and verticillium wilts, with average incidence rates ranging from 5 % to 42 %. The maximum prevalence of these diseases reached 85 %, 20 %, and 30 %, respectively, with disease development observed at levels of 15–18 %. Bacterial pathogens, causing bacterial canker (Pseudomonas spp., Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Michiganensis (Smith)), blossom-end rot (Pseudomonas spp.), and bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), constituted 22 % of the pathogenic complex. Viral diseases did not significantly impact eggplant crops economically. The average infection areas for viral diseases during the study period were minimal (0.7–3 %, with a maximum of 5 %), disease prevalence ranged from 0.1 % to 3 %, and disease development was observed at 1–2 %. The study identified periods of harmfulness for the main disease agents affecting eggplant plants throughout the growing season. In the early stages (from germination to flowering), black leg and fusarium wilt were observed. Starting from the budding phase, eggplant plants in open-field conditions were susceptible to a broad spectrum of pathogens causing viral diseases, rots, alternariosis, septoriosis, and bacterial canker. At later stages of development, blossom-end rot, gray mold, and anthracnose were detected on plants and fruits. Weather conditions were identified as a significant factor influencing the development and spread of these diseases.
Key words eggplant, phytopathogenic microorganisms, spread of diseases, development of diseases, period of harmfulness, phase of development
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