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Ear parameters of durum spring wheat varieties and their variation depending on weather conditions

Author(s) Novak Zh.M., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Новак М. А., , ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2022 issue Issue number 101. Part 1
pages 69-77 index UDK 631.52:633.11
DOI 10.32782/2415-8240-2022-101-1-69-77 (Link)
Abstract Durum wheat is a source of high-quality protein, used mainly for making pasta, pasta, and cereals. The main way to increase the yield of wheat is to increase the productivity of the ear, in particular its length and the number of ears in it. The number of spikelets is characterized by significant constancy, it has less variability compared to other characteristics, therefore it is more significant in selection. However, this sign may change under the influence of meteorological factors. We studied the ear parameters of wheat cultivars over six years, which were characterized by a variety of weather conditions. 2017-2020, as well as 2022, were characterized by a deficit of precipitation. A special feature of 2018 was a frosty and snowy March, which made it impossible to sow early spring crops at the optimal time. During 2021, an increased amount of precipitation was observed. The average spike length of durum spring wheat varieties was 5.1–7.6 cm. It was the smallest in the Shovkovysta biotype, and the largest in 33/16. The highest average indicators were in 2017, and the lowest in 2018 and 2019. The genotypic variance was the lowest in 2019 – 0.39; it was in the range of 0.86-0.94 in 2018, 2020 and 2021. The ecological dispersion for different variety samples was from 0.61 (variety Diana) to 3.63 in biotype 32/16. A smaller value of the indicator indicates greater stability of the genotype. The excess of environmental variance over genotypic variance indicates a greater influence of year conditions compared to genotype. The length of the ear depending on the genotype varied slightly in 2017, during all other years the variation was average. Variation by year in most of the analyzed selection material was average, only in varieties Nashchadok, Tera and variety samples Ertol, Lavina, 31/16 and 32/16 — significant. The number of spikelets in an ear on average over the years of research ranged from 14.1 (in variety sample 32/16) to 18.0 pcs. (for varieties Spadshchyna and Chado). Variation in the number of spikelets per spike in most biotypes was average. However, in the varieties Nashchadok, Kharkivska 39, Novatsiya and selection samples Kustanaiska 28, Lavina and Shovkovysta, a significant variation of this indicator was noted, that is, they react more strongly to the improvement of environmental conditions.
Key words variety sample, collection, durum wheat, ear length, number of ears in an ear
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