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Biometric aspects and phenological stages of winter barley crop formation under the influence of fertilizer and nitrification inhibitor

Author(s) Шестак В. Г., , ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2022 issue Issue number 101. Part 1
pages 28-46 index UDK 631.82/1/7:633.162: 631.416:631.95
DOI 10.32782/2415-8240-2022-101-1-28-46 (Link)
Abstract Introduction. Norms for the use of nitrogen fertilizers and nitrogen stabilizers have not been studied for application under winter barley from the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine in previous years. Methods Experiments were conducted at the research field of the Lviv National Environmental University during 2019-2022. The traditional fertilization system: N23P60K60(NH4)2HPO4+NH4NO3+KCl – N10P26K26 (before sowing) + N37(NH4NO3) (vegetation restoration) was the benchmark. We performed field experiments and culture cultivation according to traditional methods in agronomy. Results. Weather observations gave us reason to assume that during 2010-2020 the climate continued to warm according to the average annual air temperature and the annual amount of precipitation decreased. The research years 2020, 2021 and 2022 were favorable for the formation of the winter barley grain crop. The average temperature in July was higher than the climatic norm of 17.5°C by 1.3–2.0°C. Annual rainfall totals for 2019, 2020 and 2021 were significantly higher than the climate norm of 738 mm and were 700, 791, 812 mm and 272 mm respectively for the seven months of 2022 at harvest time. We did not find any abnormal differences in the development phases and growth rates of winter barley during the 2019–2022 growing season. The rate of nitrogen fertilization N120 guaranteed the formation of the longest spike – from 6.2 to 6.4 cm. The use of nitrapyrin both in the fall and in the spring, against a high background of nitrogen nutrition N120 and the introduction of P60K60 in the fall contributed to the formation of a spike 6.3-6.4 cm on these options. We visually evaluated the best development of crops when applying the background (N23P60K60) + N97(NH4NO3) (vegetation restoration), as well as on the background + N97(NH4NO3) (vegetation restoration) + N-Lok Max (before sowing). The good and excellent condition of winter barley was recorded with the simultaneous introduction of background + N97(CH4N2O) and urease inhibitor in autumn. We assessed the state of crops from 4.5 points from the tillering phase to 5.0 points during grain formation on a five-point scale. We concluded that the highest average yield of winter barley in 2020–2022 was provided by fertilization N23P60K60(NH4)2HPO4+NH4NO3+KCl) (before sowing) + N67 (restoration of vegetation) + N30 (beginning of earing) + N-Lok Max (restoration vegetation) at the total rate of N120 (7.65 t/ha of grain). The average annual yield increase relative to the control N23P60K60(NH4)2HPO4+NH4NO3+KC) (before sowing) + N37(NH4NO3) (vegetation recovery) was 0.73 t/ha. Conclusions. We obtained a statistically significant increase in the yield of winter barley from the use of N-Lok Max nitrate stabilizer (0.47 t/ha) on the option N23P60K60(NH4)2HPO4+NH4NO3+KCl) (before sowing) + N97(CH4N2O) + N-Lok Max (before sowing) at the total rate of N120 compared to the control. The yield of winter barley was significantly reduced with the use of urea under autumn plowing without the use of N-Lok Max, or with the spring use of the inhibitor compared to other fertilization systems.
Key words nitrogen, barley height, ear development, grain number of ear, nitrogen stabilizer, grain yield
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