Uman NUH | today: 11/12/2022

Implementation of potential productivity of new apple varieties

Author(s) Chetsky B.A., , , Uman National University of Horticulture
Category The Agronomy
year 2022 issue Issue 100. Part 1
pages 253-260 index UDK 634.11:634.1-15:634.1.055:634.1.076
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2022-100-1-253-260 (Link)
Abstract Placement of plantations in optimal climatic zones and in areas with appropriate soil conditions is important in modern horticulture in Ukraine. This is achieved by introducing into the plantings of high-yielding, early fruiting, immune to diseases and pests varieties with high marketable properties of fruits, the introduction of rootstocks with emphasis on weak - and medium, using optimal planting schemes, biologically correct methods of pruning trees. The research was carried out for the period 2017–2020 in apple orchards located in the Right Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine in the garden of FG "Neophytes" – a branch of the Department of Horticulture and Viticulture Uman National University of Horticulture. New apple varieties have been identified as objects: Golden Delicious (control), Red Chief, Fuji, Florina and Jonagold, grafted on a dwarf rootstock M.9 and planted according to the scheme 3.5 x 1 m (2857 trees/ha). The accumulation and realization of the productive potential of new apple varieties was determined by generally accepted methods, and statistical processing was performed by analysis of variance using computer programs. Estimation of the number of ovaries in the experimental garden revealed that it differed significantly in the variants of the experiment and ranged from 35 pieces / tree (Jonagold variety) to 76 pieces/tree (Golden Delicious variety). The lowest fruit weight was recorded in the pomological variety Florina (from 115 to 125 g), intermediate values were determined in the varieties Golden Delicious and Red Chief (from 138 to 160 g) and the highest fruit weight was Jonagold variety (from 184 to 228 g depending on the study year ). In the fourth year of planting, 60 % of the trees had yields5.1 kg/tree and more (Red Chief, Fuji and Florina), and varieties Golden Delicious and Jonagold – more than 10.0 kg/tree. The average yield of all trees in 2018 was 6.2 kg/tree. In the following years, the load on the crop decreased, which was due to climatic factors and confirmed by the results of mathematical analysis – the share of the impact of the research year increased to 14.6 %, and pomological variety decreased to 36.3 %. In our studies, the trees of the studied varieties at the age of four or six were marked by variations in the value of specific productivity from 0.28 to 0.69 kg/cm2. During the whole period of research, the Jonagold tree produced the largest number of apples of the highest commercial grade – 63–65 %, which exceeded the control variety Golden Delicious. Most of the fruits of the second commodity grade were formed by plants of Fuji varieties. The lowest number (4–6 %) of non-standard fruits was recorded on Fuji and Jonagold trees in 2018.
Key words apple tree, variety, productivity, yield capacity
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