Uman NUH | today: 04/14/2024

Agrochemical properties of soil and sugar beet productivity under different fertilizers and liming

Author(s) Hospodarenko G.M., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Martynyuk A.T., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2022 issue Issue 100. Part 1
pages 145-155 index UDK 631.4-0.26.78 : 633.63 : 631.8
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2022-100-1-145-155 (Link)
Abstract The combination of the high level of soil fertility, optimal fertilization and highly productive hybrids of sugar beet is the basis for obtaining high sugar yields per crop area unit. Therefore, receiving objective data on changes in the agrochemical properties of soil and the reaction of sugar beet to different doses of lime and fertilizer systems in the conditions of long-term stationary field experiment is relevant. The study was carried out in a stationary experiment (UAAS certificate №86) on the research field of Uman National University of Horticulture with geographic coordinates of 48°46'56.47''N and 30°14'48.51'' E. The soil is classified as black podzolized heavy loamy on loess (according to FAO / WRB 2014 – Luvic Chernozems) and is characterized by low nitrogen content of lightly hydrolyzed compounds (by the method of Cornfield), inc reased content of mobile phosphorus compounds and high content of mobile potassium compounds (by Chyrykov method). The experiment was based on the four-field crop rotation (winter wheat, sugar beet, corn, peas) on three fields. The total lime dosage was calculated by the level of exchangeable acidity. A single dose of defecation mud containing 60 % CaCO3 was 9.0 t/ha. The issues of the productivity of sugar beet and complex effect of various doses of defecation 4.5 t/ha, 9.0 13.5 t/ha and mineral fertilizers on the agrochemical properties of black podzolized heavyloamy soil of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine are considered. It is established that the use of black podzolized soil for growing field crops under different agrochemical loads changes the structure of the soil complex. The application of mineral fertilizers increases soil acidity by 0.2–0.3 рНКСl units over two rotations of the 4-field crop rotation, and hydrolytic acidity by 0.46–0.65 cmol/kg, which reduces soil saturation with bases from 87 to 81–82 % depending on the doses of fertilizers. Liming (9.0 t/ha of defecation) makes it possible to maintain these indicators at the initial level. The nitrogen content of lightly hydrolyzed compounds after liming showed a tendency to improve the nitrogen regime of the soil. It also increases the content of mobile phosphorus compounds in the soil, and the content of mobile potassium compounds does not change significantly. Liming helps improve of the sugar beet productivity. The increase in the yield of root crops during the first two years after the action of defecation accounts for 10–18 %, depending on the dose of lime. At the background of liming, the increase in the yield of root crops after applying potash fertilizers rises from 6 to 7–10 %. On average over two rotation cycles the payback of 1 kg of N + P2O5 + K2O fertilizers at the background of applying 9.0 t/ha of defecation in the experiment variant N120P90K90 increases from 29.3 to 43.3 kg of beets. Over two rotations cycles of the four-field crop rotation, the application of mineral fertilizers at the background of the aftereffect of defecation contributes to an increase in sugar harvest by 0.40–0.73 t/ha∙(year), depending on the doses of fertilizers and lime.
Key words sugar beet, blackpodzolized soil, defecation, mineral fertilizers, agrochemical properties of soil
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