Uman NUH | today: 06/25/2022

Clogging of crops and productivity of 5-field crop rotation against the background of different intensity of the main cultivation of chernozem soil

Author(s) Eshchenko V.O., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of General Agriculture, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Koval G.V., postgraduate, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2021 issue Issue number 99. Part 1
pages 37-47 index UDK 632.51:[332.66:631.582+631.51:631.445.4]
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2021-99-1-37-47 (Link)
Abstract Formulation of the problem. Crop rotations of modern field agriculture should be developed according to the principle of classical fruit change, which is an important factor in the high productivity of individual crops on different agro-backgrounds, which can be different ways of the depth of the main tillage. Verification of the latter was the main task of our research. Conditions and methodology. Field studies were carried out in a stationary experiment on podzolized chernozem with a 5-field crop rotation with such an alternation of spring crops: soybeans – rapeseed – wheat – oil flax – barley. The experiment compared the effect of plowing and flat-cut loosening at 15–17, 20–22 and 25–27 cm on the weediness of crops, crop yield and the productivity of crop rotation in terms of the yield of feed units and assimilated protein. Research results. It has been established that a significant part of weed seeds after flat-cutting loosening is concentrated in a layer of 0–10 cm, from where, under favorable moisture conditions, it can germinate with the formation of seedlings, which can bloom before cold weather and replenish the stock of weed seeds in the soil. During moldboard plowing, weed seeds are evenly distributed over the entire arable layer, as a result of which it can be half as much in the 0-10 cm layer as after non-moldboard plowing. Therefore, the actual weediness of crops cultivated in crop rotation has always been higher after flat-cutting loosening: soybeans – by 22.1 %, rapeseed – by 72.6 %, and wheat, oil flax and barley – 15.0, respectively; 20.4 and 20.3%. On average for the crop rotation, this increase averaged 25.2 % over three years. A decrease in the depth of cultivation also caused contamination of crops, and its deepening as a whole in the crop rotation had a positive effect on the cleanliness of crops from weeds. The level of weediness of crops of cultivated crops at the beginning of the growing season should be considered a determining factor in the formation of the productivity of these crops due to the presence of a strong and very strong correlation between these indicators. Wheat was the most productive in terms of the yield of feed units, and soy was the most productive in terms of the yield of digestible protein. This applied to both methods or techniques of the main processing, and individual crops against the background of plowing had an advantage in both productivity indicators over flat-cut loosening. The productivity of crops and crop rotation was higher against the background of deep cultivation compared to medium and shallow cultivation. Conclusions. The use of flat-cut loosening instead of moldboard plowing, as well as a decrease in the depth of both methods of processing, is accompanied by a significant increase in the contamination of crops. As well as a decrease in the yield of the main products and a noticeable decrease in the productivity of a 5-field crop rotation in terms of the yield of feed units and assimilated protein.
Key words methods and depth of basic tillage, weediness of crops, crop yields, crop rotation productivity
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