Uman NUH | today: 06/20/2024

Use of different criteria for estimating precocity of heterosis maize hybrids in forest-steppe conditions

Author(s) Kotsyuba S. P., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture
Novak Zh.M., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Nakloka O. P., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture
Category The Agronomy
year 2021 issue Issue number 99. Part 1
pages 162-168 index UDK 633.11
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2021-99-1-162-168 (Link)
Abstract In the article it is shown the results of the study of heterosis hybrids of corn on the signs of early ripening, such as: the growing season, the number of leaves on the main stem, the moisture yield of grain during harvest. To distribute our corn material by precocity, a number of studies were conducted, namely: estimating the length of the growing season "shoots – full ripeness", which was determined in days, and a very important indicator today is the moisture content of grain when harvested in percentage, it allowed to distribute heterosis hybrids into two groups: early-maturing (106–114) and middle-early – 114–123 days. Over the years of testing, the weather conditions varied considerably, which made it possible to evaluate in detail the material under study. In 2020, the growing season was within 107.8 days, which is almost three days less than in 2021. At the same time, the longer vegetation period was in 2021. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze the rate of moisture yield of corn grain of the studied hybrids of the two maturity groups. The conducted researches allowed to trace the dynamics of grain moisture yield of early-maturing maize hybrids and one hybrid of the middle-ripening group of maturity, to determine the variability of hybrid grain moisture in different periods of grain maturation. The year 2021 was more favorable for growing corn, the plants formed a large vegetative mass, but the grain had a high humidity during the harvest period. This is due to a significant amount of precipitation (69.9 mm) in August 2021. Hybrids that had high harvest humidity were characterized by a long growing season, such as № 47 × № 33. Therefore, our selected hybrids can be successfully used in planning a strategy for early maturity. In establishing the patterns of moisture transfer of grain when it reaches, in particular, the influence of the conditions of the year, in our study group were identified two hybrids consistently better in terms of grain moisture. Preference should be given to hybrids № 31 × № 37 and № 83 × № 125, which combine indicators of early maturity: the shortest growing season, the number of leaves on the main stem and the rate of moisture.
Key words maize, heterosis hybrids, vegetation period, grain moisture, number of leaves
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