Uman NUH | today: 08/12/2021

Damage to sugar beets by cercosporosis and gray rot, depending on the characteristics of fertilization

Author(s) Hospodarenko G.M., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Martynyuk A.T., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Kravets І.S., Candidate of Agricultural Science, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2021 issue Issue number 98. Part 1
pages 21-34 index UDK 633.63:[632+632.25:631.8]
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2021-98-1-21-34 (Link)
Abstract The results of field and laboratory research on podzolized heavy loam chernozem of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine to study the effect of various fertilization systems on the infestation of sugar beet by cercosporosis and gray rot are presented. It has been found that changes in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrition have a different effect on the development of diseases. The semi-rotted cattle manure on straw bedding and mineral fertilizers in the form of aqueous ammonia, ammonium nitrate, granular superphosphate, mixed potassium salt, potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate phosphate fertilizer grade A and liquid complex fertilizers of grade 10–34–0 were used in the experiment. The rate of manure is 40 t/ha, the rate of mineral fertilizers – N120Р120К120. Fertilizers were applied in August during fall plowing, as well as in late autumn at the end of October, together with the soil subsurface loosening to a depth of 14–16 cm, and in spring – for presowing cultivation. The degree of the leaf apparatus damage by cercosporosis and the intensity of the disease development were determined. The resistance of root crops to gray rot was determined by a microbiological method. For this, cuttings from root crops were placed in Petri dishes with a provocative background of a pure culture of the fungus Botritis cinerea Pers. The conducted studies have established that, depending on the types, forms and timing of mineral fertilizers against the background of manure, the degree of the leaf apparatus infestation of beets with sugar cercosporosis varies from 24 to 48 % and increases both for insufficient and unbalanced phosphorus nutrition. At the same time, the improvement of nitrogen nutrition, especially with the late autumn application of aqueous ammonia, compared with its introduction for the August plowing, contributes to an increase in the degree of stability of the leaf apparatus of sugar beet to cercosporosis from 46.6 to 60.0 %. Improving the mineral nutrition of plants through the use of fertilizers helps to increase the resistance of root crops to decay. At the same time, depending on the fertilizer application system, the degree of stability compared to the control without fertilizers increases by 8.5–38.9 %. This was especially effectively promoted by the improvement of phosphorus nutrition of plants. A high correlation dependence was established between the damage of leaf apparatus of sugar beet by cercosporosis and the formation of a rotten mass of root crops (r = 0.85).
Key words sugar beet, cercosporosis, leaf apparatus, gray rot, types and forms of fertilizers, nutrients
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