Different weather conditions provide unequal growth and development of plants, in addition, biotypes react differently to changes in external environmental factors. Scientists from Ukraine and other countries analyze varieties and samples of spring barley for the purpose of determine donors of useful traits in different soil and climatic conditions.
For the purpose of combine a number of useful traits in one genotype, hybridization between geographically distant biotypes is used. Uman National University of Horticulture has a collection of spring barley samples by different geographic origin.
The analyze of breeding material by biometric traits, which will allow us to determine the level of manifestation of each of them in different conditions of 2018–2020 and to determine the donors of useful traits for the further breeding process, was carried out.
The weather conditions of the years of research were very different. 2018 was the most unfavorable year for early spring crops. The reason for this was the presence of snow cover until the end of March. After that were strong heat and lack of precipitation. 2019 and 2020 were more favorable for spring barley due to the long cool spring. In addition, in 2020, May and June characterized by increased rainfall.
The average plant height of the studied biotypes ranged from 50 to 64 cm. Most samples had the lowest plant height 40–57 cm in 2018, and the highest – in 2020 – from 54 to 88 cm. The average spike length of the analyzed samples was 5.9–8.1 cm. There was not dependence between conditions of the research year and spike length. The number of spikelets per spike was naturally determined by the research conditions. The lowest indicators were observed in 2018 — from 7.0 to 12.0 units, while in 2019 — 16.6–23.9 units, and in 2020 — 20.2–27.7 units. The variation of plant height of the analyzed samples was medium and significant with coefficients from 13.7 to 32.6 %. There was a slight, medium and significant variation of the length of the ear (V = 2.9–23.6 %). The index of number of spikelets per spike most varied — the coefficients of variation were 32.6–55.5 %.
sample, spring barley, plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike