The article is devoted to solving the problem of increasing the yield of winter wheat crops when it is grown after the predecessors of six types of perennial legumes. The features of the passage of the growth and development phases of winter wheat plants in the spring are shown, depending on the predecessors. The dynamics of plant height in the spring-summer period is analyzed. The change in the density of winter wheat plants during the spring renewal of the growing season and at the end of the growing season was studied. The spring thinning of winter wheat plants, the coefficient of total and productive tillering are calculated. The total number of stems of winter wheat plants and productive stems is shown.
The level of grain yield of winter wheat, depending on its predecessors, was investigated, and correlation-regression relationships between it and the factors of spring-summer vegetation of crops were revealed. A close correlation has been proved between the grain yield and the number of all stems, as well as productive stems of winter wheat plants on an area of one square meter, as well as between the grain yield and the height of winter wheat plants at the beginning of spring regrowth.
It is shown that the most favorable growing conditions and the level of grain yield of winter wheat when growing it after various types of perennial legumes is observed after the predecessor of meadow clover, where the highest plant density at the end of the growing season was observed – 145 million pcs/ha, the number of total – 878 pcs./m2 and productive stems – 799 pcs./m2, as well as the highest plant height at the beginning of spring regrowth – 6 cm. This allows you to get a winter wheat grain yield of 5.8 t/ha without the use of mineral fertilizers. After white melilot, the yield of winter wheat was 10.2 % less and amounted to 5.21 t/ha; after sandy sainfoin – 14.% less – 4.99 t/ha; after the eastern goat's rue – by 21.6 % less – 4.55 t/ha; after sowing alfalfa – by 24.5 % less – 4.38 t/ha and after horned grass – the lowest yield – 4.03 t/ha, which is 30.6 % less than after meadow clover.