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Control of the number of weeds in crops of grain sorghum and their effect on the growth and development of plants

Author(s) Правдива Л. А., , ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2021 issue Issue number 98. Part 1
pages 182-191 index UDK 633.174:631.5
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2021-98-1-182-191 (Link)
Abstract In Ukraine, grain sorghum is considered a valuable crop, as it is used in the food industry, in fodder production and in the energy industry, and control of the number of weeds in crops is extremely important. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of methods for controlling the number of weeds on the growth and development of grain sorghum plants in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Field — to study the biological, ecological features of growth and devel¬opment of productivity and quality of culture (ob¬servation, obtaining correlations), laboratory — to identify the relationship between plant and the environment (analysis of plants and soil); generalization — to establish the general properties and characteristics of objects; mathematical and statistical — to process experimental data to increase the validity of conclusions. Results. Weed infestation and the use of various methods of controlling the number of weeds influenced the growth and development of plants, namely: in the variant with high infestation, the growing season was the longest – 121–124 days, the plant height was 39–77 cm in the Dnіprovskiy 39 variety, and 72 cm in the Vіnets variety. cm, the number of productive stems was 12.6 pcs/m2 in varieties Dnіprovsky 39 and 12.3 pcs/m2 in varieties Vіnets, leaf surface area 1 plant and plant weight had low indicators as in variety Dnіprovsky 39 (1053.2 cm2 and 973 g/m2) and in varieties Vіnets (1017.3 cm2 and 912 g/m2), other methods of controlling the number of weeds were observed significantly better growth and development of grain sorghum plants. Conclusions. In the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, the quantitative and species composition of weeds in crops of grain sorghum was studied. In the crops of grain sorghum, mainly monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous types of weeds prevailed. Their average number was 101.0 pcs/m2, their air-dry weight was 158 g/m2. It was found that the high efficiency of weed control was observed in the variant with manual weeding by almost 97 %, in the variant with the mechanical and chemical methods, the efficiency was from 76 to 79 %. On the variant with biological weediness (control), the amount of weeds increased by almost 10 %.
Key words grain sorghum, variety, weeds, methods of protection, efficiency of action
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