||The expansion of the assortment of vegetable plants allows to increase the variety and production of domestic vegetable products, in particular, tomatoes. The article examines and proves the research results that the variety significantly affects the formation of tomato productivity and can minimize the negative impact of environmental factors.
Experimental studies were carried out in 2018–2020. On the experimental field of the Uman NUS and was carried out in accordance with generally accepted methods. The main research methods are used in the work: analysis and comparison, experimental, calculated. We studied tomato varieties of Ukrainian selection Lagidny (control), Anita, Aisan, Vulkan, Geyser, Daruna, Classic, Lyubimy, Mirolyubovsky, Obereg, Udavchik, Fizuma, Khoriv, Chudo.
The study of the nature of the influence of the varietal characteristics of the tomato on the onset of the main phases of growth and development confirmed the different timing of the beginning of flowering and in the variety Mirolyubovsky period began on May 27, in the varieties Obereg, Khoriv, Lagidny - on May 30. The fruits of most varieties reached in the third decade of July, in the Mirolyubovsky variety - on July 24, in the Obereg and Khoriv varieties – on July 29, later than control. Depending on the variety, budding of the first cluster occurred 43–46 days after germination. The shortest growing season was observed in the varieties Lyubimy, Mirolyubovsky, Udavchik, Fizuma – 102–105 days, Anita, Obereg and Chudo – 106, Horev and Lagidny – 107 days.
It was found that in terms of the height of the main stem in the seedling phase, most varieties had similar indicators – 33.5–33.7 cm, only in the Mirolyubovsky variety it was the smallest – 29.1 cm. An insignificant increase in the height of the main stem was revealed in the flowering phase of the first cluster and before the start of fruit collection, it was 71.3–71.8 cm in varieties Khoriv and Obereg, Mirolyubovsky – 55.8 cm. Before planting, most varieties had 6 leaves, and in Mirolyubovsky variety – 5. At the beginning of ripening, fruits on plants were counted by 45 leaves in the Oberig variety, 41 – Khoriv, 28 – Mirolyubovsky, which is significantly higher than the control of the Lagidny variety – 37 pcs / plant.
The area of leaves on the plant varied depending on the area of the leaf blade and their number. In the seedling phase, the leaf area was 21.9 thousand. m2/ha for the Mirolyubovsky variety, for the Obereg variety – 24.3 thousand. m2/ha, ie had close values with control (21.3 thousand m2/ha). At the time of flowering, this figure increased for the variety Obereg to 52.8 thousand. m2/ha, in the variety Horiv – 52.4 thousand. m2/ha, which was significantly higher than the control – 45.2 thousand. m2/ha. At the beginning of fruit ripening, the leaf area reached 127.3 thousand. m2/ha, Obereg – 129.0, Mirolyubovsky – 125.5 thousand. m2/ha.
Comparison of the number of generative organs of plants showed that during the growing season a larger number of brushes was formed on plants of the Horeb variety – 23.1 pieces / plant, which exceeded the control – 20.8 pieces / plant.
The highest yields were found in the varieties Vulkan and Khoriv – 63.0 t/ha, as well as Miracle – 62.8 t/ha, which significantly exceeded the control – 56.0 t/ha. The Daruna variety approached this indicator and had a yield of 56.9 t/ha. In varieties Anita and Obereg, the yield was lower than the control by 1.4–1.5 t/ha, in varieties Mirolyubovskiy and Aisan – by 8.3–9.5 t/ha.
The variety Oberig had high chemical indicators, the fruits of which accumulated 6.2 % of dry soluble substance versus 5.1 % control Lagidny. The varieties Khoriv and Mirolyubovsky were close to the control in terms of this indicator. In terms of sugar content, varieties Khoriv, Obereg and Mirolyubovsky prevailed – 3.4, 3.9 and 3.8 %, respectively, which is significantly higher than the control. In terms of the amount of vitamin C, the varieties Oberig and Chudo were distinguished, in which a high sugar-acid coefficient was found – 9.4 compared to the control (7.5). In varieties Khoriv and Mirolyubovsky, it was at the level of 5.6 and 5.8, respectively.