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Influence of tillage systems and herbicides on weediness and yield of beets in the Western Forest-Steppe

Author(s) Bezvikonnyy P. V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Podilsky State Agrarian and Technical University
Mialkovskyi R. O., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Podilsky State Agrarian University of Technology
Потапський Ю. В., , ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2020 issue Issue number 97. Part 1
pages 204-211 index UDK 635.11:632.954:631.51
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2020-97-1-204-211 (Link)
Abstract The article considers the possibilities of expanding the use of shelfless tillage in the cultivation of beet roots by combining them with the use of soil herbicides in the western forest-steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Analysis, synthesis, generalization, field experiment. Results. The research results showed that the use of Gladiator herbicide on the background of treatments reduced weediness compared to the control from 5.3 pcs/m2 on the background of plowing, 7.6 pcs/m2 on the variant KLD-2.0 to 17.4 pcs/m2 in the variant with processing of BDP-6.3. Dual Gold herbicide (1.2–1.6 l/ha) was less effective than Gladiator and Goldix herbicides. Thus, in the variant (BDP-6,3) herbicide Gladiator proved to be more effective by 14%, and Goldix by 30 % compared to Dual Gold. The application of herbicides before sowing beetroot reduced the number of weeds by 4.5–7 times compared to the herbicide-free background. It was also found that in the control variant, where no herbicides were applied, the yield of beets on the background of plowing was 42.3 t/ha, on the background of shelfless tillage — 41.6 t/ha, and on the background of soil disking — 38.6 t/ha. When using herbicides, the yield of beets increases. Thus, when using the herbicide Gladiator (5.0–6.0 l/ha), the average yield over the years of research was 63.9 t/ha on the background of plowing, on the background of flat cultivation — 60.7 t/ha, and on the background of disking — 55.7 t/ha. The highest yields of beet roots were obtained using the soil herbicide Goldix (6 l/ha). The yield of beet roots under the combined action of plowing the soil with the herbicide was 64.5 t/ha, with no-tillage — 60.4 t/ha, and in the variant with disking — 56.1 t/ha, respectively. Compared to the two previous herbicides, the soil herbicide Dual Gold (1.2–1.6 l/ha) was less effective. Conclusions. In the Western Forest-Steppe optimization of tillage and rational use of herbicides increases the yield of beets. Among the methods of tillage, the highest yields were obtained on the variants with plowing and flat cultivation. Of the proposed herbicides, the most effective were soil herbicides Gladiator (5.0–6.0 l/ha) and Goldix (6 l/ha), which provide root yields at the level of 63.9–64.5 t/ha.
Key words beet, plowing, flat cultivation, disking, weediness, yield
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