Uman NUH | today: 09/03/2020

Reaction of maize hybrids to the changes in crop density in the northern Steppe of Ukraine

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Category The Agronomy
year 2020 issue Випуск 96 Частина 1
pages 635-651 index UDK 633.15:631.53.048
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2020-96-1-635-651 (Link)
Abstract The technological process of growing maize should provide agro-technical measures which directly influence the crop and its quality. Crop density plays an important role. An increase in the yield is possible with high individual productivity and maximum permissible plant density. Since there are no unambiguous recommendations on plant density for new maize hybrids, which are recommended for cultivation in the northern Steppe of Ukraine, this work is relevant and of great practical importance. The objective of the research is to recommend to agricultural producers the optimum plant density for new hybrids of corn. The main task of the research was to study the process of their development, to establish the influence of crop density on growth, development and productivity of these hybrids. In subsidiary agricultural enterprise Likarivka 2 in Olexandria district of Kirovohrad region, a two-factor field experiment has been carried out, in which the first-order plots were hybrids of maize LG3258, Adevey and LG30352. The second-order plots were plant densities of 50, 65 and 80 thousand/ha. The largest leaf surface area of a plant was formed with the density of 50 thousand/ha. The best was Adevey hybrid with 53,4 dm² during flowering, and 37,9 dm² in the middle dough stage. With the crop density of 50 thousand/ha, all hybrids showed best indicators of individual productivity. So, on 100 plants of LG30352 hybrid, 105 maize cobs were formed, Adevey had 104.5, and LG3258 hybrid had 100 cobs. With the density of 65 thousand/ha, the indicator was 97,5–100, and with the density of 80 thousand/ha there were 92,5–95,0 cobs. Productivity of hybrids varied within the range of 7,03–8,37 t/ha. With the density of 50 thousand/ha, Adevey (8,37 t/ha) was the best, the second was LG30352 (8,13 t/ha), and LG3258 (7,88 t/ha) performed worse. Significantly lower results were noted with the density of 65 thousand/ha – from 7,81 to 8,24 t/ha, depending on the hybrid. The lowest productivity was fixed in the the thickened crops – 7,03–7,33 t/ha. The best indicators of pre-harvest grain moisture were noted at the density of 80 thousand/ha – from 14,6 % in LG30352 to 16,2 % in Adevey. Therefore, in the conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine, the correct choice of crop density of maize fosters a significant increase in the yield and individual productivity of the studied hybrids. The best indices of individual productivity and yield were observed for the hybrids LG3258, Adevey and LG30352 with crop density of 50 thousand/ha.
Key words maize, hybrids, crop density, productivity
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