Uman NUH | today: 09/03/2020

Apple tree productivity depending on moisture availability

Author(s) Zamorskyi V.V., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
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Category The Agronomy
year 2020 issue Випуск 96 Частина 1
pages 535-548 index UDK 634.11:634.1-15:634.1.055:634.1.076
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2020-96-1-535-548 (Link)
Abstract One of the determining factors for obtaining stable high yields of apple trees in Ukraine is the provision of plantings with moisture. The use of modern irrigation methods makes it possible to regulate the moisture supply of the apple trees. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of drip irrigation on the growth and yield of apple varieties in the soil and climatic conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine. Studies were conducted in 2018–2019. in apple tree plantings, which were located in the garden of FYF "Neophytes"–- a branch of the Department of fruit and viticulture of Uman National University of Horticulture. The objects of study were apple varieties: Golden Delicious and King Jonagold, grafted on the rootstock M.9 and planted according to the 3,5 x 1 m scheme. Each variant included 15 plants in quadruplicate. Growth parameters and productivity were determined by the generally accepted method, and statistical processing was performed by the method of variance analysis using computer programs. It was established that among the varieties that were presented in the studies, the King Jonagold cultivar was distinguished by a larger cross-sectional area of the stem. The difference in the cross-sectional area of the stem between the trees of the Golden Delicious and King Jonagold varieties according to the experimental options in 2018 was from 6,8 to 7,2 cm2, and in 2019 from 7,0 to 8,4 cm2. The use of irrigation positively influenced the growth processes of apple trees during the growing season. In the Golden Delishes variety, the average shoot length in the control in 2018 was 9,9 ... 12,6 cm less than with drip irrigation, and in 2019 – 3,8 ... 7,0 cm, respectively. In general, growth rates had large values for the variety King Jonagold. Irrigation for the maintenance of soil in the garden under black steam significantly increased the yield of the apple trees. With a humidity level of 80% of the lowest moisture capacity and 70% of the lowest moisture capacity, the yield in 2018 in both varieties studied was almost the same and amounted to 32,4 and 31,6 t/ha for Golden Delishes, and King Jonagold for 40,8 and 40,6 t/ha. Determination of the cross-sectional area of the stem of varieties Golden Delicious and King Jonagold showed the dominance of the latter, and the use of irrigation increased the cross-sectional area of the stem of both varieties. The average shoot length depended on the conditions of moisture supply and the characteristics of each variety, and the use of the variant with the beginning of irrigation at 80 % of the lowest moisture capacity significantly increased the productivity of the apple varieties Golden Delishes and King Jonagold
Key words apple tree, growth, moisture supply, productivity
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