||For the purpose of combine a number of useful traits in one genotype, hybridization between geographically distant biotypes is used. Uman National University of Horticulture has a collection of samples of spring durum wheat. Most of the samples to the Uman National University of Horticulture transferred from the National Center for Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine for experimental work and exhibiting. Since the soil and climatic conditions of these institutions are quite different, we analyzed the transmitted biotypes by biometric indicators, in particular, by plant height and spike length, in order to determine donors of useful traits, as well as their further use in the breeding process.
According to the research results and classification of V. F. Dorofeev, five biotypes belong to the group of semi-dwarfs: two of them are Ukrainian and Canadian, one is Kazakh. The largest number of variety samples (16) are low-growing. Among them, 10 are domestic, four are Kazakh, and one each is Russian and Canadian. Only two samples are medium-growing, both of Kazakh breeding. For all samples, the highest indices were observed in 2017, which was characterized by the best weather conditions, and the lowest plant height was in 2018.
The spike length is determined by genotype and largely depends on the influence of meteorological conditions. The average spike length of the analyzed samples was 4,7–6,5 cm. It was the smallest for the Shovkovista biotype, the largest for Spadshchina and Kustanayskaya 28. The average genotypic dispersion was 0,59, while the green variance was 2,01. This indicates a greater influence of growing conditions compared to the genotype.
The coefficient of variation of the spike length depending on the genotype in 2017–2019 is 10,0, respectively; 17,6 and 13,6 %, which indicates an average variation. At the same time, the variation across years was very different for different genotypes: for biotype 31/16 it was insignificant (V = 6,0), for samples Spadshchina, Dynasty, Diana, Gisele, Harkivska 39, Damsinskaya 40 and Lavina – average, the rest is significant.