||Vegetable peas are a valuable grain-legume crop. Vegetable peas occupy an important place among vegetable crops by the content of easily digestible protein from 5 to 8 %, caloric content and exactingness to climatic conditions. Vegetable peas are used for fresh consumption, canning, freezing and drying.
The main direction in breeding work is the creation of early-maturing high-yielding varieties resistant to diseases and pests. But for breeding work, you need to clearly know the karyotype of the culture. Now more than 1000 are known and only 300 loci have been identified. A small part of them is responsible for the manifestation of economically valuable traits. It is the morphological features in the selection of peas that can be used as markers to simplify identification and control of recessive genes for the selection of cultivars.
Therefore, to simplify the selection work, we used a marker feature of the color of the tripe, with the subsequent determination of its influence on the main economically valuable traits in the conditions of climate change.
The research was carried out on the experimental field of the Uman National University of Horticulture in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe. During the growing season, a complete analysis of samples was performed based on phenological observations and biometric measurements.
Selection work on the creation and introduction of high-yielding varieties of peas into production begins with the selection of parent pairs. As a result of hybridological analysis, selection is carried out in the population. But to simplify the selection of individual valuable breeding samples, morphological features are used that are controlled by dominant alleles.
The "black tripe" of seeds is a marker feature with its dominant manifestation in the genotype. However, its recessive state determines the manifestation of a modifier gene that can increase seed productivity.
784-th cultivar was isolated on the base of the obtained biometric data. This cultivar with the pl gene (modifier gene) a colored tripe on the seeds in the genotype provided a significant increase in the data on the number of beans to 9.7 pcs and the weight of 1000 seeds 200 g.
Also, according to the yield data, the dependence of the studied cultivars on changes in weather conditions of cultivation was revealed. However, in order to confirm or disprove their ability to resist the influence of negative environmental factors, we have calculated the adaptive ability of cultivated varieties based on yield data. So, according to our data, it was revealed that 762 and 784 selection samples belong to the intensive type based on the SAS indicators and regression coefficient, with confirmation of changes in their yield for 2018 and 2019.
According to the results of our research, the presence of the recessive pl allele in the genotype, which determines the presence of black staining of the tripe in the dominant state, does not lead to a decrease in biometric indicators of productivity and yield, and simplifies the control of seed purity. However, based on the adaptive ability data, the high reaction of two cultivars to the improvement and deterioration of growing conditions with a corresponding change in the yield level was confirmed.