Uman NUH | today: 06/25/2022

Implementation of under winter sowing of sugar beet in selection process for the creation of pollinators-fixers of sterility and their CMS analogues

Author(s) Trush S.G., , ,
Parfeniuk O., , ,
Баланюк Л.О. , , ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2019 issue Issue number 95. Part 1
pages 157-166 index UDK 631.527:633.63
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2019-95-1-157-166 (Link)
Abstract Creation of highly productive sugar beet hybrids on the basis of CMS requires wide breeding research with their parent components. The main part of this research was previously conducted in the selection and greenhouse complex (SGC), which fully worked in the autumn-winter period. However, due to insufficient funding of scientific programs and significant financial costs for the maintenance of SGC, in recent years it became impossible to use it in breeding work under previous schemes. Therefore, under these economic conditions, it is necessary to develop new, alternative schemes and methodological approaches for conducting relevant research. One of the ways to solve the problem of estimating the parent components of hybrids according to the complex of the most significant breeding and genetic features is introduction into the breeding process of under winter sowing of sugar beet crops during the cycle of plant development "from seed to flowering". Scientists of the Tobacco Research Station NSC "IA of NAAS". in 2010–2014, in order to accelerate the breeding process, introduced under winter sowing of sugar beets in the agro-climatic conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Taking into account the fact that in the field conditions there is no guarantee of annual wintering of sugar beet plants, in 2016–2018 we studied possibilities of under winter sowing of sugar beet in non-heated SGC. In this case, due to timely irrigation, the optimal seeding period and covering the crops with warming materials before entering the winter is achieved the stable, over the years, wintering of sugar beet plants. It was established that the highest level of preservation of sugar beet plants after wintering (82.2 %) is observed at sowing on the 5th of September and seeding rate of 17 pcs /m. According to these conditions, plants were formed the optimal size and content of dry matter of roots, able to resist to critical temperatures during the wintering. The flowering of sugar beet seedlings occurred in the first decade of June and it was possible to select the best genotypes of sterility (O-type lines) and their CMS analogues in the second decade. The use of this method, by conducting summer crops of sugar beets, makes it possible to accelerate the breeding process for one year for each cycle of selection. In addition, due to energy savings, the material costs of conducting research of this type are significantly reduced.
Key words sugar beet, hybrid, parent components, planting term, sowing norm, under winter sowing, winter resistance
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