Uman NUH | today: 09/05/2020

Forming of the productivity of planting of apple-tree in dependence on method and term of pruning

Author(s) Chaploutskyi A.M., , , Uman National University of Horticulture
Melnyk O.V., , , Uman National University of Horticulture
Category The Agronomy
year 2019 issue Випуск 95 Частина 1
pages 199-206 index UDK 634.11:631.542:631.17(477.4)
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2019-95-1-199-206 (Link)
Abstract Efficiency fruit production limits the level of productivity including pruning trees, due to the high complexity of operations and labor shortages. Therefore, all the more urgent development and implementation of the elements of the mechanized care spaces, in particular contour pruning. Mechanized pruning with fruit wall formation is used to keep the balance between growth and fruitfulness in apple orchard as a result of constant increase in the cost of manual labour and reduction in the number of workers involved in gardening. Such growing technology becomes more spreading in horticultural farms throughout Europe, reducing labour costs, increasing orchard productivity and improving the quality of grown produce. By adjusting the parameters of the ground part, achieved the best coverage of the center of the crown, improves air circulation, so fruiting is stabilized and improved crop quality commodity. The features of the application of different terms of mechanized pruning and their influence on orchard productivity and commercial quality of yield were considered. The purpose of the study – the definition of the method and timing of pruning, which provides the optimal parameters of the crown of apple trees in the intensive orchito increasetheirproductivityd. The results of the effect of pruning terms and ways of an irrigated orchard on apple yielding productivity . Apple trees (cultivars Golden Delicious and Jonaveld) on dwarf rootstock M.9 were pruned in winter, or in winter and in an early-summer period (when 10 leaves were on a shoot): conventionally (by hand), mechanically – to form a fruit wall with a width 0.8 m in a lower part and 0.5 m in an upper part, and to reduce growth on a crown periphery; pruning was also done mechanically with hand finishing. It has been shown that first of all apple productivity depends on terms and ways of crown pruning. Mechanical pruning with hand finishing facilitates increase in the quantity ovary of fruits – by 15%, level of fruit binding – by 13%,increase in the quantity of fruits – by 19%. Good illumination of crown by mechanized pruning and weaker growth of shoots initiate formation of a number of generative buds which ensures high yields of qualitative fruits.
Key words mechanical pruning, early summer pruning,productivity,apple.
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