Uman NUH | today: 03/12/2021

Dynamics of yield of sugar beet in field crop rotation elements under prolonged use of fertilizers

Author(s) Martynyuk A.T., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Hospodarenko G.M., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Novak Y.W., Candidate of Agricultural Science, , Uman National University of Horticulture
Category The Agronomy
year 2019 issue Issue number 95. Part 1
pages 128-138 index UDK 633.16:631.8:633.63
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2019-95-1-128-138 (Link)
Abstract The results of studies of long-term application of fertilizers in the units of 10 field crop rotation for the formation of sugar beet yield on chernozem podzolized Right Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine are presented. Studies have shown a decrease in root crop yields only on non-fertilizer areas in the third rotation of crops on 1.0–1.4 t / ha depending on the precursors, whereas in the fourth and fifth rotations its increase was observed. Prolonged use of mineral and organic fertilizers in crop rotation and directly under sugar beet contributed to an increase in sugar beet yield over an average of 50 years of research on 5.9–14.1 t / ha or on 19–45% in the clover unit and on 5.8 –13.7 t / ha or 20–47% - in the case of maize silo. The saturation of field crop rotation with mineral fertilizers at the rate of N45P45K45, N90P90K90 and N135P135K135 when it directly applied to sugar beet in doses of N90P90K90, N135P135K135 and N180P180K180 increased the yield on 4.1–6.4 the second and third - on 4.3-11.0 and 7.6-13.6 t / ha, in the fourth and fifth – on 6.7–13.3 and 8.2–16.9 t / ha, and on the precursor of corn to the silo, respectively – on 4.3–6.6; 5.6–10.8; 6.2–12.6; 5.4 to 11.8 and 8.5 to 17.1 t / ha. Organic fertilizer system, with the application under sugar beet 30, 45 and 60 t / ha of manure while saturated with crop rotation at the rate of 9, 13.5 and 18 t / ha, the yield of sugar beet increased in the link with clover for an average of 50 years on 5.9-10.4 t / ha, and in the section with maize silo - at 5.8-10.9 t / ha. In terms of efficiency, the organic fertilizer system is inferior to the mineral and especially organo-mineral systems. Regardless of the crop rotation link, the higher crop of root crops was obtained by the joint application of mineral and organic fertilizers. For the organic-mineral fertilizing system in crop rotation with the direct application of 45 t / ha of manure in sugar beet + N90P202K45, the yield of root crops in the clover link amounted to 37.5 t / ha in the first rotation, in the second - 43.0 , the third – 46.1, the fourth – 48.9 and the fifth – 51.2 t / ha, and in the link with corn silage, respectively 36.5; 42.3; 43.5; 44.0 and 49.4 t / ha.
Key words sugar beet, manure, mineral fertilizers, precursor, field crop rotation.
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