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Influence of ecological factors on productivity and economic efficiency of cultivating winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.) in the conditions of the Southern Forest-steppe of Ukraine

Author(s) Kalenych P.Е., , , NSC "Institute of Agriculture of NAAS"
Category The Agronomy
year 2018 issue Issue № 92. Part 1
pages 314-324 index UDK 621.8; 633.11:632.9
Abstract In the article the influence of ecological factors on seed productivity, level of costs, cost price and economic efficiency of growing of new varieties of winter wheat (Bogdan, Chorniava, Slavna and Astarta) in the conditions, for different seed rates and sowing dates (the reaction of the variety is described in order to replace the individual elements of the seed system). Purpose. To determine the level of influence of factors (norms and terms) on the yield of conditioned seed material, growth factor and economic factors (costs, profit, profitability level), as well as individual reaction of winter wheat varieties in the ecological system of seed production to these factors, which would allow to form and obtain genetically determined productivity potential of the variety. Results. During studies on the index of "yield" of conditioned seeds and quantitative indicators of economic efficiency in the cultivation of winter wheat varieties, results from 342 plots were obtained, which for complete reliability were grouped and analyzed by factors of influence and calculated impacts NIR05. Conclusions. Slavna and Chorniava Astarta Bogdan 5,55 t/ha. Thus, when shifting the timing of sowing to the later in the optimal seed rate does not lead to a significant reduction in the yield of conditioned seeds. It was established that the highest yield of winter wheat in the investigated varieties was formed during sowing between September 15 and October 5 for sowing rates of 5,5 million seed/ha. The winter wheat variety Bogdan a for the sowing on October 5 provided the highest level of yield of conditioned seeds – 4,21 t/ha (+ 15,7% for control), whereas the variety Astarta provided the highest yield on conditioned seeds, in terms of control (in the range from 1,59 to 3,38 t/ha). The highest productivity level of 7,02 t/ha (+3,38 t/ha or + 92,9%) was on the variant of the experiment for sowing on October 5 at the sowing rate of 5,5 million seed/ha. In terms of sowings of 5,5 million seed/ha on varieties between sowing dates on September 15 and 25, the difference in the yield of conditioned seeds was insignificant. The highest rates of reproduction ratio were obtained for sowing rates of 2,5-3,0 million seed/ha in all variants of seedlings research. Grade Astarta provided a higher seeding rate of 2,5-3,0 million seed/ha for all sowing periods at the level of 36,0-37,6 for the sowing on September 25 with the seed rate 5,5 million seed/ha of seeds. The difference between the highest and the lowest level of total production costs is mainly due to the value component of the seed material of a certain variety - at the control of 7251,86 hryvnias/ha, then in all variants of the study of the terms of sowing for sowing rates 5,5 million pounds per hectare was the least (Bohdana – 6423,03, Slavna – 6553,51, Chorniava – 6584,24 and Astarta – 6588,61), and the highest were on all terms of sowing for the norm of sowing 2,5-3,0 million seed/ha (respectively 7251,86, 7414,76, 7545,71 and 7249,47). The cost of seeds in the structure of production costs per 1 hectare in experiment was at the control of 20,7% and in the studied varieties within the limits: Bohdana 11,03-20,7%, Slavna 11,4-21,28%, Chorniava 11,79-21,71 and Astarta 10,73- 20,63%. Sort Astarta was characterized by the highest profitability and profit margins obtained for all sowing periods at a seed rate of 5,5 million seed/hectare of similar seed (318,25-361,10% and 22626,80-25815,53 hryvnias/ha), and the smallest values were obtained for all sowing periods at the seed rate of 2,5-3,0 million seed/ha of similar seed (277,83-292.24% and 18427,12-19387,12 hryvnias/ha).
Key words Astarta, Bohdana, Slavna, Chorniava, seed rate, seed yield, profitability level.
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