||The land resources of Polissia of Ukraine are characterized by sufficient potential possibilities for growing of millet, the yield of which can reach at 3,5 – 4,0 t/ha and more. By a restrain factor, that causes the annual shortage of harvest and decline in quality of grain there is a damage to plants by the causative agents of illnesses and display of diseases of not parasitogenic origin. One of the most dangerous and harmful diseases of millet is piriculariose.
The causative agent of piriculariose is characterized by high plasticity and adjusted to plant-nutrients, which shows up in the ability to develop during the whole period of vegetation and affect all the above-ground organs of plants - leaves, vaginas of leaves, stems, stem nodes and panicles.
Therefore, the aim of our research was to examine of sowing of millet, to establish the features, appearance and development of piriculariose. In addition, to determine a damage of the sorts of culture by the exciter of illness exposure of dependence of its development from high quality features and weather terms for the subsequent improvement of the traditional system of defence of culture.
The field researches conducted during 2013–2015 in the conditions of the experimental field of the Zhytomyr National Agroecological University (Chernyakhivskiy District, Zhytomyr region). They studied eight sorts of millet. The soil of experimental areas: grey forest light loamy.
Gobbing of experiments, observation, and phytopathogenic estimate of sowing of millet was carried out according to generally accepted methods. The estimate of the damage of plants by piriculariose was carried out on a nine ball scale.
During the years of research, weather conditions varied, according to both the temperature regime and the amount of precipitation that contributed to the development of piriculariose. For the development of phytopathogene in 2014 was the most favorable.
It should be noted that on the sowing of millet in the conditions of Polissia, the disease showed up only as spotted of leaves.
The first symptoms of damage appeared in the phase of bushing out. On the leaves as small (1-2 mm) light brown spots with the clearly expressed brown framing. During the next 10-12 days, the spots increased in sizes and reached of 3-4 cm. They had the rounded or elliptical form. They also necrotize inside, which resulted in the premature drying up and dying off leaves.
One of the factors that influences on the regulation of development of the diseases is the particular features of the sort. Because of the researches, it was found that all sorts of specimens were affected by Piricularia grisea (no signs of the disease were detected absolutely). On average, during the period of research, the degree of damage of plants of millet by causative agent was in the range of 0.7 to 6.5%.
The highest development of the disease was found on the sorts Myronivske 51 (6.5%), Kyivske 87 (5.6%), Kyivske 96 (4.8%), and the smallest – on the sorts Vitrylo (0.7%), Juvilejne (1, 1%) and Zolushka (1.3%).
By the method of dispersible analysis, it is determined the influence of development of piriculariose depending on the variance characteristics of the culture.
It should be noted that the basic influence on the level of development of piriculariose is the variation of the sort, but not the difference over the years. Varying of the development of piriculariose by 78,3% is determined by a sort and by 18,6 – by the peculiarities in terms of years.