Uman NUH | today: 07/08/2024

Comparative assessment of yields of varieties and hybrids of beetroot in the conditions of the Right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

Author(s) Ketskalo V.V., Candidate of Agricultural Science, Associate Professor of Department of Vegetable Production, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2018 issue Issue № 92. Part 1
pages 125-133 index UDK 635.11:631.55(477.46)
Abstract The aim of the research included the increase in the yield capacity of beetroot in the right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine by selection of high-yielding varieties and hybrids of foreign selection. The experimental part of the research was conducted in 2014–2015 on the experimental field of the Department of Vegetable growing of Uman National University of Horticulture. The varieties Harold (USA) and Detroit (France) were investigated. The variety Hopak (Ukraine) served as a controlled one. The variety Zeppo F1 (Netherlands) was a controlled one for hybrids Boro F1 and Pablo F1 (Holland). The sowing was performed during the second decade of April according to the scheme 45×10 sm (222,2 thousand pcs./ha).Technological works were carried out according to the requirements of the growth and development of beetroot. The yield was gathered in a solid way in the first decade of October and sorted according to the requirements of the State Standard of Ukraine 7033:2009 «Beetroot fresh. Technical conditions». According to the phenological observations and characteristic of varieties and hybrids the early ripen varieties include Boro F1, Pablo F1, Zeppo F1 and Harold. During the phase of beam ripeness a domestic variety Hopak (a controlled one) had larger number of leaves. The plants of the Detroit variety formed 11 leaves less. The number of leaves of hybrids was 20–27 pieces. Hybrid Zeppo F1 (a controlled variety) had higher number of leaves, and hybrid Boro F1 – lower. In the phase of technical ripeness the plants of the Hopak variety and hybrid Zeppo F1 formed more leaves – 15 and 12 pieces accordingly. The length of the leaf plate in the phase of beam ripeness was longer in varieties and amounted to 19,3–20,6 sm, whereas in hybrids the length was 15,6–16,5 sm. A similar trend was determined in the phase of technical ripeness of the roots. The weight of leaves in the total weight of the plant in average experience in the phase of beam ripeness was at the level of 22,3–28,3 %and in technical – 10,6–16,2 %. The total yield capacity in the experience was within 38,8–63,5 tons/ha. The cultivation of the varieties allowed to get 48,0–52,2 tons/ha of production. The variety Harold was more yielding. Hybrids provided 38,8–63,5 tons/ha of roots and Boro F1 was the best one – 63,5 tons/ha. The total yield capacity was divided into the product and non-product. Among the varieties Hopak (the controlled variety) formed less marketable roots – 41,3 tons/ha with marketability 86,2 %. More marketable products output were observed in the Harold variety – 47,2 tons/ha with marketability of the roots 90,3 %. During the cultivation of hybrids Zeppo F1 (the controlled hybrid) had lower indicators – 36,3 tons/ha, however, the marketability of the roots was at the level of 93,6 %. Hybrid Boro F1 had higher yield – 56,2 tons/ha with the marketability of the roots 88,5 %. According to the average data of 2014–2015 the Harold variety formed larger in weight roots – 240 g, and the controlled variety had lower indicators – 220 g. The diameter of the roots was 8,5–9,2 sm and the Hopak variety (the controlled one) had the higher indicator. This indicator in the varieties Detroit and Harold was at the same level and was 8,5 and 8,6 sm accordingly. During the cultivation of the hybrids Boro F1 formed the roots of higher weight – 300 g, and hybrid Zeppo F1 (the controlled hybrid) had lower weight – 180 g. The diameter of the roots of the beetroots of the hybrids in average experience was of 8,8–9,6 sm. So, the investigated varieties and hybrids of the beetroot of foreign selection are applicable for cultivation in the Right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The processes of coming and passage of phenological phases of plants in hybrids were faster compared with the varieties. On biometric indicators in phase of beam and technical ripeness larger indicators were determined in varieties. During cultivation of the varieties the marketable yield capacity of beetroot increased in comparison with the controlled one by 5–14 %, which corresponds to 2,1–5,9 tons/ha. In hybrids this indicator was 42–55 % and 15,3–19,9 tons/ha, accordingly. Sort Harold and hybrid Boro F1 had the best weight indicators.
Key words beetroot, variety, hybrid, root, yield capacity
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