Uman NUH | today: 05/20/2019

Soybean reaction to weed infestation of its crops on the background of fall tillage of varying intensity

Author(s) Eshchenko V.O., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of General Agriculture, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Kalievskiy М.V. , Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Koval G.V., postgraduate, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2019 issue Випуск 94 Частина 1
pages 26-34 index UDK УДК 633.34:[632.5:631.51]
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2019-94-1-26-34 (Link)
Abstract The results of field studies on soybean reaction to weed infestation of crops, which was established at different periods of vegetation of culture under the influence of fall tillage and subsurface loosening at different depths of podzolized chernozem in the conditions of the southern part of the Right-bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine, are presented. It was established that soybean crops were less contaminated at the beginning of the vegetation of the plants on the background of moldboard plowing, where, taking into account all depths of processing in 2014, 2015, 2016, and average of three years, the amount of weeds was less compared with subsurface loosening, respectively, by 46, 61, 110 and 73 pcs/m2 or 27,5; 24,7; 19,1 and 22,1 %. In the middle and end of soybean vegetation, weed infestation of its crops on the background of plowing decreased respectively by 5, 56, 98 and 53 pcs/m2 or by 13,2; 13,5; 49.8 and 40,2 %, and 11, 41, 46 and 35 pcs/m2 or 23,9; 34,2; 29,9 and 33,7 %. The level of weed infestation of soybean crops at different periods of vegetation was also determined by the depth of both methods of basic soil cultivation, but to a large extent this method was manifested on the background of moldboard plowing where on average within three years from the replacement of shallow (15–17 cm) plowing by deep (25–27 cm) at the beginning, middle and end of soybean vegetation weed infestation of crops decreased by 19,0; 22,9 and 29,0 %, respectively, whereas at such deepening of subsurface loosening, this decrease was reduced to 10,6; 21,2 and 19,1 % respectively. The level of grain yield of soybean crops, as well as their weed infestation was also determined by the method of basic soil cultivation, and the depth of tillage and subsurface loosening. The yield of soybean grains decreased considerably due to replacement of tillage with subsurface loosening, and during two years out of three the level of yield was inversely proportional to the depth of processing, and this dependence was valid. The yield of soybean yield scarcely reduced due to weed infestation only in 2014, when the norm of precipitation exceeded the perennial norm by almost 10 %, and the level of weed infestation was lower compared to the other years. The conducted regression analysis showed that in the course of the last two years, due to the increase of soybean crops weed infestation by one weed plant, the shortfall in crops at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of vegetation of the culture in 2015 was 6,8; 9,0 and 10,8 kg/ha, and in 2016 2,2; 2,4 and 4,6 kg/ha. Consequently, weed is more harmful at the end of soybean vegetation.
Key words soybean, tillage, subsurface loosening, depth of tillage, weed infestation, yield.
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