Uman NUH | today: 05/19/2019

Influence of methods of the basic soil cultivation on crop weediness of the five-field crop rotation in the southern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

Author(s) Koval G.V., postgraduate, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Kalievskiy М.V. , Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Eshchenko V.O., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of General Agriculture, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2018 issue Випуск №92. Частина 1
pages 99-109 index UDK 631.51:632.51:631.582(477.46)
DOI
Abstract The harmful effect of weeds on crops has been studied by many scientists. The most significant damage by weeds is caused at the beginning of plant growing when there is sufficient feeding. The negative effect of weeds is also shading of cultivated plants and as a result of it they do not develop enough mechanical tissues, carbon dioxide is absorbed worse and organic matter is less accumulated. Under the conditions of intensive cultivation of crops, it is necessary to pay attention to the soil treatment system, taking into account its significant influence on crop weediness. According to our recording, subsurface loosening application instead of plowing leads to increase in rapeseed weediness and this increase at the beginning of vegetation averages 94 plants/m2 on average over three years. Replacing moldboard under-winter ploughing by subsurface loosening, taking into account all the depths of plowing and subsurface loosening, spring wheat weediness increases by 86 plants/m2 or 13%, flaxseed oil weediness – by 135 plants/m2 or 21% and soybean weediness – by 73 plants/m2 or by 22%, respectively. And only in spring barley crops there are more weeds after plowing (55 plants/m2 or 8%). In spite of this, on average, the crop rotation at the beginning of vegetation of spring crops after subsurface loosening there are more weeds in comparison with plowing (by 63 plants/m2 or by 13%). The increase in the depth of plowing and subsurface loosening from the maximum to the minimum on average for the crop rotation helped to reduce weediness at the beginning of crop vegetation by 39 and 19%, in the middle of vegetation by 39 and 35% and at the end of vegetation by 44 and 20%, respectively. On average, the tendency to increase the weed density is observed in the crop rotation after replacing moldboard under-winter ploughing by subsurface loosening and decreasing the depth of both methods of autumn plowing.
Key words various depth plowing, subsurface loosening, spring crop weediness of the five-field crop rotation.
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