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The life and career of the outstanding horticulturist and academician Vasyl Pashkevych (1857-1939)

Author(s) Mamchur T.V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture
Category The Agronomy
year 2017 issue Випуск №91. Частина 1
pages 259-269 index UDK 634.1:001.8(092)
DOI
Abstract Vasyl Pashkevych was one of the most prominent representatives of national pomology, an outstanding scientist and the founder of Fruit Growing Science, Doctor of Biological Sciences (1934), an academician of All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences (1935), and a chief specialist in Horticulture at the Department of Arable Farming. He was one of the facilitators of agricultural research in Ukraine. His main studies were devoted to the study of fruit crops assortment. Vasyl Vasylovych was the first person in Russia who drew attention to the need for processing fruits and vegetables and offered a number of technologies in this field. In addition, he studied floriculture, olericulture and medicinal herbs. He was also engaged in teaching and executive activities. From 1885 to 1892 V.V. Pashkevych was the Head of Uman Tsarina Garden and a lecturer at the Main School of Gardening, where he taught botany and horticulture. The time he spent at the Main School of Gardening, was very fruitful: a pomological orchard with a great number of national and foreign varieties was planted, a formal garden was established, the cultivation of grapes was started, technological solutions for the cultivation of pineapples, which used to be sent to the Russian monarch in St. Petersburg, were developed. V.V. Pashkevych introduced various technical ways of processing: drying fruits and vegetables, cooking pastes, pastille and marmalade. The national production of fruit wines was established. Rainold’s and solar drying devices were created. V.V. Pashkevich made a significant contribution to the maintenance and development of the park “Sofiivka”. In the years 1890-1891 he laid “English park” or the Arboretum, where lots of different rare plants, interesting and valuable in ornamental and botanical terms, were collected. Since 1990s Pashkevich, being an expert in fruit growing at the Department of Arable Farming, examined the state of fruit growing in a number of provinces. The results of these activities were presented in the articles and books that contain descriptions of fruit growing in some provinces. He paid great attention to agricultural engineering and varieties of fruit crops that were bred and their economic value. Pashkevich presented the correct determination of the content of pomology. While the representatives of Western European pomology were only engaged in describing and classifying varieties, Pashkevich considered that it was important to examine the stability of varieties in soil and climatic conditions in various parts of the country, the ratio of different rootstocks, productivity, relationship in the process of pollination, economic value of fruits, etc. In addition he accumulated and generalized extensive material for the study of the biological characteristics of varieties of cross-pollination, and he studied and described the parent form of fruit trees. V.V. Pashkevich was a great modest person and a talented researcher, highly respected by M.I. Vavilov for a significant contribution to the science and practice.
Key words V.V. Pashkevych, founder of Fruit Growing Science, history, horticulture, pomology, fruit, medicinal plants, lecturer, scientist, Main School of Gardening.
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