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Development of mycoses of spring triticale depending on fertilization in the Western Polissia region

Author(s) Kluchevich М.М., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Zhytomyr National Agroecological University
Plaksa V.M., , ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2016 issue Випуск №88. Частина 1
pages 252-261 index UDK 633.1:632.4:631.82(477.82)
DOI
Abstract Among grain crops that can realize the natural potential of productivity in Polissia the leading role belongs to triticale. Specific recent weather conditions during last periods of vegetation contribute to the development and spreading pathogens of fungal diseases in the agrocenosis. To increase plant resistance to the pathogens and adverse impact of growing conditions it is necessary to develop an effective system of fertilization and protection measures that would ensure the availability of necessary nutrition elements during critical periods of growth and development of crops. The research was aimed at determining the effect of mineral nutrition of spring triticale varieties on the development of major fungal diseases, studying photosynthetic activity of plants and formation of crop yielding capacity at Volyn State Agricultural Research Station of the Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissia, Ukraine, the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine during 2012–2015. The experimental design included the following varieties of spring triticale: Korovai kharkivskyi, Legin kharkivskyi, Solovei kharkivskyi and Khlibodar kharkivskyi. Each variety was the subject of investigation on fertilizing according to the following variants: control (without fertilizers), N30Р30К30 + N30 kg of the fertilizer / ha (stage 29),N30Р30К30+ N30 and Nutrivant Plus, 3,0 kg / ha (stage 29) + N30kg of tlie fertilizer / ha (stage 37). Recording triticale diseases was carried out using conventional methods (Omeliuta V.P. and others, 1986; Retman S.V., 2001). The intensity of photosynthesis was determined with N-tester. In western Polissia, Ukraine there are the following main mycoses of spring triticale: powdery mildew (agent – Blumeria graminis (DC.) f.sp. tritici Speer.), brown leaf rust (Puccinia recondite Dietel & Holw.), septoria spots on leaves (Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) Schroeter, Phaeosphaeria nodorum (Mull.) Hedjar.), root rot (Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoem.,Rhizoctonia spp., Fusarium spp.). Minor development of Alternaria blight (Alternaria spp.), black stem (Ascochyta graminicola Sacc.) and spot disease (Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoem.) is determined. It is found that the triticale variety Legin kharkivskyi has the immunity against mycoses as powdery mildew affected 1.2–2.6 % of the yield, wheat leaf rust – 1.7–4.2 %, leaf blotch – 1.6–4.8 % and root rot – 0.3–0.9 % and its development changed depending on the type of fertilization. Against the background of mineral nutrition – N30Р30К30+ N30 and Nutrivant Plus, 3.0 kg/ha (stage 29) + N30 (stage 37) this variety is the least affected by pathogens of leaf blotch and root rot and creates higher level of crop productivity – 4.42 t/ha. Applying mineral fertilizers N30Р30К30with one-time (stage 29) and two-time dosing of N30 (during stages 29 and 37) and water-soluble fertilizer Nutrivant Plus influenced the reinforcement of developing pathogens of leaf diseases (Blumeria graminis і Puccinia reconditа). After applying N30Р30К30+ N30 and Nutrivant Plus, 3.0 kg/ha (stage 29) + N30 (stage 37) increasing in number of photosynthesis units took place and it boosted the crop yield from 1.85–2.24 to 3.88–4.42 т/га. The variety of spring triticale Legin kharkivskyi was characterized by the highest crop yield during the years of research.
Key words spring triticale, varieties, mineral fertilizers, mycoses, photosynthesis, yield capacity.
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