The article presents the topicality and necessity for biological monitoring of soil. Soil biodiversity of natural and agricultural ecosystems under different soil and climatic conditions of the Poltava region was studied. In the studied areas were defined parameters: number of earthworms (Lumbricina), number of Collembola, number of soil microflora and soil microbial activity. The results of the studies determined an advantage number of earthworms (Lumbricina) and Collembola in natural areas, but soil microbiological activity and microflora numbers on farmland under soil-climatic zones of the region. It is noted that soil biodiversity, among all soil-climatic zones of the Poltava region, is the largest in the southern transition zone. Therefore this zone has the most favorable conditions for the life of the soil biota, which has a positive impact on soil environmental condition, increases its stability and fertility. Possibility of using proposed bioindicators for early diagnosistic of the ecological condition of the soil ecosystem was presented.
soil biological diversity, population numbers of earthworms (Lumbricina), springtails (Collembola), numbers of soil microflora, microbiological soil activity