||Under the conditions of the eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, the spelt did not studied systematically from the point of view of its use as a source material as for bread wheat breeding as for the creation of spelt varieties as such. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a spelt diversity accumulated in the National Plant Genebank of Ukraine, for a range of economic and biological characteristics and to determine the prospects of its use in the breeding process.
As a result of the study, standard accessions were identified for winter and spring spelt, that are characterized by increased and stable expression of the basic traits of productivity in different years. The cultivar Frankenkorn (AUT) is defined as a standard for winter spelt; the accession UA0300304 (AUS) — for spring spelt. The spelt accessions combining high genotypic effect and environmental plasticity for productivity are identified: the winter samples NSS 3/01 (SER) and UA0300257 (SWE); the spring one UA0300111 (CAN). High manifestation level of agronomic and economic valuable traits are characteristic for winter spelts NSS 6/01, NSS 1/02 (SER), UA0300257 (SWE), UA0300075 (TJK); spring spelts UA0300304 (AUS) and Tridentina (ITA) — in terms of yield and its elements; for winter spelt - Nirvana (SER) and spring UA0300074 (ESP) — on lodging resistance, for winter spelt NSS 6/01 and Nirvana (SER) — for resistance to leaf rust.
Spelt samples are characterized by high protein content in grain — an average of 16.4% in winter spelt, 17.3% in the spring; gluten content is 38.5% in winter, 37.7% in spring samples. Moreover, these properties are combined with grain size: winter accession NSS 3/01 (SER) had 1000 grainweight 45.4 g, protein content of 17.5%, gluten content 43.9%, in the winter variety Nirvana (SER) the corresponding characteristics were 47.8 g, 17.4%, 41.6%. From the spring accessions, the highest protein and gluten content indicate the UA0300074 (ESP) — 18,0% and 39,5% respectively. The gluten belongs to the second quality group.
In order to overcome the negative characteristics of spelt — hard grain threshing and brittle ear, hybridization of spelt accessions with modern varieties of bread wheat was carried out. There were obtained winter-hardy hybrid forms from the combinations of winter spelts: NSS 1/02 (SER) x Octava; UA0300075 (TJK) x Vasilina; UA0300075 (TJK) x Octava; NSS 6/01 (SER) x Vasilina etc.; high productive and high protein lines of bread spring wheat 187 – 2/11, NAK 170/11, NAK 200 – 1 / / 11, NAK 181-p/11 etc.They could be used as a starting material for the breeding of the both crops in the eastern part of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine.