Uman NUH | today: 07/14/2020

The influence of fertilizer norms and foliar fertilizer of corn on biometric indicators and the mass of 1000 grains in the conditions of the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

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year 2020 issue Випуск 96 Частина 1
pages 443-456 index UDK 633.15:631.81
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2020-96-1-443-456 (Link)
Abstract One of the most effective ways to adjust the yield and quality of corn grain is the use of fertilizers. Compared to other spring crops, corn has a longer growing season and requires significantly more nutrients. Trace elements have a significant effect on the formation of the corn crop, as well as major mineral elements. With the help of enzymes, which include trace elements, substances in plant cells are synthesized and converted. Soil cannot provide plants with such a quantity of trace elements in an accessible form for plants. The use of foliar top dressing is a way to make up for the missing elements while maximizing their absorption by corn plants. Despite the small amount, unlike major mineral elements, deficiencies of trace elements can also significantly reduce the yield of corn. The article presents the results of studies on the effect of foliar fertilizing of corn in the following phases of vegetation: 10 leaves, tasseling and after flowering at three levels of fertilizing N80P40K60, N120P60K100, and N160P80K140. The basis of the effectiveness of photosynthetic processes is the formation of an optimal leaf surface area. The largest leaf surface area of 43.4 thousand m2/ha, plant height – 263 cm and the attachment height of the lower cob – 133 cm were formed by plants using the N160P80K140 fertilizer variant with micronutrient fertilizers (Rexolin ABC + Maize boost) + 5 % carbamide + ammonium sulfate 5 % in the phase of 10 leaves. Regardless of fertilizer, the number of rows of grains was 16–17, the number of grains in a row – 34–37, which indicates the absence of the effect of fertilizer on these signs. The mass of 1000 grains varied depending on the background of fertilizers and the timing of feeding. The most significant effect of top dressing was obtained in the application of micronutrient fertilizers (Rexolin ABC + Maize boost) + 5 % carbamide and 5 % magnesium sulfate after flowering: N80P40K60 – 314,8 g; N120P60K100 – 318,4 g; N160P80K140 – 346 g
Key words corn, fertilizers, foliar top dressing, crop structure, mass of 1000 grains, trace elements, term
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