Uman NUH | today: 07/12/2020

The state of growth and development of winter wheat plants in the autumn growing season

Author(s) Hospodarenko G.M., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
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Category The Agronomy
year 2020 issue Випуск 96 Частина 1
pages 84-101 index UDK 633.11:631.81
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2020-96-1-84-101 (Link)
Abstract The article is devoted to the study of the state of growth and development of winter wheat plants in the autumn growing season. Climate change is making a significant correction in obtaining annual high and stable winter wheat crops. Therefore, it is important to know the reaction of varieties grown in this zone to the effect of adverse abiotic and biotic factors on the condition of winter wheat when entering winter. The research objective was to study the characteristics of the growth and development of plants of winter wheat of the Lazurnaya variety, which was sown after soy in the autumn growing season, depending on weather conditions and fertilizers applied. The thinning, damage and death of winter crops in the autumn-winter period is due to many factors, one of which is a decrease in field germination. In the years of research, field germination was affected by weather conditions and mineral fertilizers, which increased it by 4–5 %. It has been established that a long period of sowing – germination and a short period of germination – cessation of autumn vegetation negatively affect the growth processes of winter wheat. A strong correlation between the reserves of productive moisture in the soil and the duration of the sowing – seedling emergence period (r = 0,68) was revealed. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers increased plant height by 4–5 %. The number of nodal roots during the years of research was almost the same and amounted to 1,0–1,1 pcs/plant. The number of plants varied from 240–363 pcs / m2 and depended on hydrothermal conditions of the year and fertilizer. When sowing on September 27, the autumn vegetation lasted 31 days, in the late rows (October 8) only 20 days, in 2019 – 33 days. Plants entered the winter weakly rooted in the phase of three leaves. A strong correlation was found between the amount of precipitation during the emergence period and the number of plants at the time of vegetation cessation (r = 0,89). It was proved that in years with a longer period of autumn vegetation (2017 and 2018 years), the dry weight of 100 plants was higher. Fertilizers increased this indicator by 0,5–0,2 g/100 plants. It was established that at the time of termination of the growing season, the carbohydrate content in winter wheat leaves and their costs during overwintering did not depend on mineral nutrition and amounted to 12–25 % depending on weather conditions. For the period of renewal of winter wheat vegetation, the carbohydrate content in plants decreased in the control variant from 17,1 to 14,1 % (2017–2018 year) and from 15,6 to 13,7 % in 2018–2019. In the context of a sharp deficit of precipitation in 2019 year, a relative increase in the accumulation of carbohydrates and their expenditures during the winter period was observed
Key words winter wheat, fertilizers, plant density, growth phase, growing season, wintering.
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