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Parameters of apple orchard leaves plantings under differend soil retentoin systems under the hail net

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Category The Agronomy
year 2020 issue Випуск 96 Частина 1
pages 497-507 index UDK 634.11:631.17(477.4)
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2020-96-1-497-507 (Link)
Abstract The use of a protective net for growing fruit crops reduces crop losses from hail, sunburn fruit damage and promotes more even fruit color. However, as a result of covering the light, temperature and humidity of air changes and tree growth amplifies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of black hail-protective net on the leaf parameters and total leaf surface area of іrrigated Jonagold (Wilmuta) apple orchard on the rootstock M.9 T337 for different systems of soil maintenance in the inter-rows and tree strips. It was found that covering with a black anti-hail net causes a decrease of 6,1 % in the number of leaves on the tree. Periodically moved grass between the rows and spring mulching of the tree strips with a two-layer agro-cloth (white side up) contributes to an increase in the number of leaves on the tree by 2,9 and 9,4 %, respectively. Under the net, an area of the leaf blade is 14,2 % larger than those without cover. Сompared to black soil, periodically moved grass between the rows promotes increase of this area by 6,4 %, and mulching the tree strips with a reflective film or agro-cloth – by 6,4–7,3 %. Orchard under the black anti-hail net had a larger total leaf area by 1,9 thousand m2 / ha, compared to one without it, and when mulching the tree strips with the reflective film or agro-cloth, it was larger by 3,6–3,7 thousand m2 / ha. Compared to black soil plots, the total leaf surface area of plantations with periodically moved grass between the rows is 7,8 % higher. In the orchard without a net, the thickness of the leaf blade is 7,3 % higher than that of covered trees and it does not depend on the system of soil maintenance in the inter-rows and tree strips.
Key words apple tree, anti-hail net, soil retention, number of leaves, leaf surface
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