Uman NUH | today: 01/15/2020

Yield and quality of soya seed depending on tilling and preditors in the right-bank forest-steppe of Ukraine

Author(s) Sinchenko V. V., , ,
Tanchyk S. P., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, ,
Litvinov D.V., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2019 issue Випуск 95 Частина 1
pages 217-225 index UDK 633.34:631.55:631.51
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2019-95-1-217-225 (Link)
Abstract The article shows the features of the formation of soybean productivity depending on predecessors and tillage. It was established that in the right-bank forest-steppe of Ukraine on typical mid loam chernozem, the highest soybean yield at the level of 3,50-3,70 t/ha was ensured by placing it after grain crops (winter wheat and spring barley) for chisel treatment by 20-22 cm (chisel). After corn for corn and sunflower, the crop yield was 2,83 and 3,12 t/ha, with the option of plowing 20-22 cm. Chisel on 20-22 cm and small on 12-14 cm cultivation of the soil had the highest efficiency for placement of soy after soy. Soybean as a precursor provides high yield indicators of 3,42 t/ha for small-scale processing at 12-14 cm. It should be noted that the variant of direct sowing obtained the lowest performance of the crop, regardless of the placement of soybeans after the precursors. Compared to plowing by 20-22 cm, the level of crop yield decreased by 15.7-37.1%. The main indicator of the quality of the products obtained is the content of crude protein and fat in soybean seeds. The content of crude protein and fats in soybean seeds is not only genetically determined, but may vary depending on growing conditions and technological measures. They reflect the value of the products obtained. The highest contents of protein 39,9-40,1% and fat 20,0-20,1% in soybean seeds were obtained for its placement after winter wheat and spring barley. Depending on the tillage, the maximum values of protein and fat were obtained in plowing and chisel cultivars, regardless of the predecessor, and the minimum in the variant with direct sowing. The maximum protein yield was obtained for the placement of soybeans after winter wheat and barley and chisel soil cultivation, respectively - 1.47 and 1.40 t / ha. After soybean, high grain yield was ensured by options with chisel and small tillage of 1.35 and 1.34 t / ha. Corn for grain and sunflower, as predecessors, had maximum protein collection values of 1.12 and 1.22 t / ha when plowing to a depth of 20-22 cm. For the collection of fat per unit area, the best experiments in the experiment were soybean crops after cereal crops and soybeans (0,66-0,74 t/ha). After sunflower and corn on the grain, fat collection ranged from 0.51-0.62 t / ha.
Key words soybean, predecessor, productivity, seed quality, protein content, tillage, plowing.
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