Uman NUH | today: 05/20/2019

The selection value of wheat species (soft, spelt, short-grain, Petropavlovskyi) according to the baking qualities of grain

Author(s) Kryshtopa N. V. , , ,
Boguslavskiy R. L., , ,
Lubych V.V., Candidate of Agricultural Science, Lecturer of Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2019 issue Випуск 94 Частина 1
pages 221-231 index UDK 631.527:633.111:664.6
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2019-94-1-221-231 (Link)
Abstract The selection value of the grain representatives of wheat species (soft, spelt, short-grain wheat, Petropavlovskyi) according to protein content, gluten, its deformation index, quality of bread. The protein content in the short-grain wheat varied wide-ranging: from 15.2% in the wheat grain of Petropavlovskyi to 26.8% in Rubiota spelt variety. All the studied varieties and lines of wheat (spelt, short-grain wheat, Petropavlovskyi) according to the protein content exceeded the standard grade of Podolianka soft wheat. In the spelt wheat, the protein content was 1.3–2.1 times, in the short-grain wheat – 1.2–1.7, and in the Petropavlovskyi wheat, was 1.2 times higher than the Podolianka (st) variety. This indicator has significantly changed over the years of research in Podolianka soft wheat grain; Kreuzung Dinkel spelt wheat, Yeremeyevna short-grain wheat variety and Petropavlovskyi wheat, since the stability index was 1.17–1.36. The protein content in the grain of the remaining varieties and wheat lines varied less, and the stability index was 1.02–1.09. Similar to the protein content, the gluten content in the short-grain wheat changed. The gluten deformation index (GDI) of wheat varied from 69 to 109 units of GDI and depended on the selection and genetic characteristics of the variety and line. The volume of bread from 100 g of top-grade flour depended more on the selection and genetic characteristics of the variety or wheat line. The largest volume of bread was obtained from flour of wheat varieties of Podolianka soft wheat and spelt wheat UA0300278 (TJK), Rubiota, Zoria of Ukraine – 491–511 cm3. In the other varieties and spelt wheat lines, it was 394–470 cm3 or less by 8–23% compared with the standard variety. The volume of bread of varieties and lines of short-grain wheat was 391–479 cm3, or 6–23% less than of the soft wheat. An increase in the protein content in the soft wheat grain and in Petropavlovskyi increased the volume of bread, since a very high correlation relationship was established between them (r = 0.97 ± 0.001). The highest overall assessment was obtained for bread made from flour of Podolianka soft wheat variety – 8.6 points. This indicator for the remaining studied wheat samples was high – 7.0–7.4 points or 78–82% of the maximum level. The surface of the crust of spelt wheat bread and short-grain wheat was perfectly smooth, without bubbles, cracks and blowing ups, the flesh is very soft with uniform pore placement, and the taste is strongly pronounced (9 points). The color of the crust was golden (7 points), the gloss was 50–75% of the bread surface (3–5 points), the color of the flesh was light with a light yellow shade (5 points), the flavour was strongly pronounced (7–9 points), the pores were small thin-walled and medium thick-walled (5 points), the crumb consistency was quite delicate (7 points). The overall assessment of the bread of Petropavlovskyi wheat was lower by 19% compared with the standard variety due to the lower value of the glossy surface (3 points).
Key words soft wheat, spelt wheat, short-grain wheat, Petropavlovskyi wheat, protein, gluten, bread quality
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