An important task for the selection of soft winter wheat is the creation of ecology-adaptive varieties with a high level of genetic protection against biotic environmental factors and able to maximize the potential of yields in combination with high quality grain.
Research by scientists has shown that diseases of crops significantly affect the productivity of plants. The decline in crop yields from a complex of diseases in Ukraine is on average 12–18 %, and in epiphytotic years – more than 25–50 %. The most dangerous diseases are brown leaf rust, septoria and viral diseases.
It has been determined that alleles of resistance to diseases in plants are dominate of the alleles of susceptibility. Virulence, as usual, inherited recessively. Not a complex system of inheritance of resistance to diseases does not guarantee reliable protection of plants from pathogens. In the production of immune varieties, they quickly lose their resistance to pathogens due to an increase in the proportion of races that not controlled by specific genes of resistance. Therefore, the necessary condition for successful selection of immunity is a well-chosen and comprehensively studied source material. Introduction to the genotype of one additional resistance gene doubles decrease the number of races that can affect the plant.
The purpose of the work was to create and analyze the genetic material of soft winter wheat, obtained from the hybridization of ecologically and geographically distant forms, which combines genes of high quality economic and valuable characteristics and resistance to brown leaf rust (Lr 34) and wheat soil born mosaic virus (Sbm 1).
Selection of parents forms for the breeding process carried out with using marker analysis. Marker analysis one of the methods for identifying the genetic potential of the samples.
During the hybridization, as the mother form used domestic soft wheat varieties with genes of resistance to diseases, and for father forms high-yielding varieties of foreign selection were used.
550 samples from 55 combinations of crossings were created and analyzed in the result of the research. In the 40 received samples its around 7,3 % of the total number of materials, the complex genetic resistance to the soil mosaic virus and brown leaf rust was identified. In the 10% of the samples, the dominant gene Sbm 1 identified in genome and 11,3 % of lines has the resistance gene against the brown rust Lr 34.
In the result of hybridization of ecologically and geographically distant forms, samples with complex resistance against diseases, which will serve the source materials for the creation of new high-yielding varieties of culture, has been obtained.
: soft winter wheat, genetic control of sign, source material, resistance, donor of gene, genetic collection