Uman NUH | today: 09/04/2019

Realization of the biological potential of sugar beet

Author(s) Balagura O.V., doctor of agricultural sciences, , Institute of Bioenergetic Cultures and Sugar Beet NAN of Ukraine
Balan V.M, doctor of agricultural sciences, , Institute of Bioenergetic Cultures and Sugar Beet NAN of Ukraine
Volokha M.P., Candidate of Technical Sciences, , Institute of Bioenergetic Cultures and Sugar Beet NAN of Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2018 issue Випуск №93. Частина 1
pages 56-70 index UDK 633.63: 631.1
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2018-93-1-56-70 (Link)
Abstract The article presents the results of research on the effects of weather conditions during the vegetative period, methods of seed preparation for sowing, varietal features and agrotechnologies on the productivity of sugar beet agrophytocenosis. The research was carried out with the purpose of theoretical substantiation and development of agrotechnology ensuring an effective realization of the biological potential of modern diploid and triploid sugar beet hybrids in conditions of unstable moistening of the Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. It is established that the productivity of agrophytocenoses of sugar beet is affected by the weather conditions of the growing season, the methods of seed preparation for sowing, varietal characteristics and adaptive agrotechnology for the conditions of the region. Significant influence on the level of yield of sugar beet has precipitation in June (correlation coefficient r = 0.70), the level of sugar content is the SCC value in June-August (r = 0.90). Optimum for the formation of highly productive sugar beet crops was the amount of precipitation during the vegetation period not less than 350-400 mm, incl. for the period of "sowing-inter-rowing" - not less than 250-300 mm, GKT - 1.0-2.0 and 1.2-2.2 respectively. Over the 10-year period, the highest productivity in the State Farm Shevhchenkivs'ke was the sugar beet crops in 2011-2014 and 2015-2017: the yield for these years fluctuated within 40.6-68.7 t / ha, sugar content - 15.3 -16,8%, collection of sugar 6,2-11,3 t / ha. The use of encapsulated, inlaid and dragee seeds for seeding positively influenced the growth and development of sugar beet plants, which ultimately ensured its higher yields compared to the control (etched seeds). On average, for three years, when seeded and seeded seeds were planted, the field germination was 78-80%, dragee - 75%, control - 74%, productivity 63.5-66.7 t / ha, 62.8 and 60.3 tonnes / ha. The productivity of sugar beet agrophytocenoses depends on the hybrid, as one of the important links in the intensification of sugar beet production. For the conditions of the Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine the hybrids of the new generation are the most adapted: triploid ones - Olzhych, Alexandria, diploid - Bulava and Anechka. On average, for three years in the zone of activity of SE Shevhchenkivs'ke, the yield of root crops in them was 61.3-63.5 tons / ha, sugar content 17.2-17.5%, seed yield 10.6 -10.9 t / ha, on control - 58.5 t / ha, 16.9% and 10.0 t / ha, respectively. The highest realization of biological potential in terms of economic and energy efficiency was achieved when growing sugar beet using adaptive technology, which included the Olzhych hybrid, seeded with seeded seeds in the second decade of April, and agricultural technology IBKiSS (patent No. 126263 of 11.06.2018). On average, the yield of root crops was 66.3 tons per hectare, sugar content - 17.2 percent and collection of sugar 11.4 tons per hectare in the Shevchenkivs'ke HSE, the annual economic effect on the area of 90 hectares was 114.4 thousand UAH per hectare.
Key words sugar beet, weather conditions (HTK), seed preparation methods, hybrids, adaptive technologies, productivity
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