Uman NUH | today: 09/08/2019

Formation of technological properties of grain of different wheat varieties and strains depending on abiotic and biotic factors

Author(s) Herasymchuk O.P., Candidate of Agricultural Science, Associate Professor of Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Ulyanych I.F., Postgraduate, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Vorobyova N.V., Postgraduate, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2018 issue Випуск №93. Частина 1
pages 80-95 index UDK 631.526.3–02:664.71–11:57.047
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2018-93-1-80-95 (Link)
Abstract The results of the studies indicate that the thousand-kernel weight significantly depended on the variety and strain. Thus, on average, for five years of the research, it was from 38.1 to 51.8 g in grain of soft wheat varieties; it was from 41.8 to 54.4 g in wheat strains obtained by hybridization of Triticum aestivum L. / Triticum spelta L.; it was at the check variant level in grain of introgressive strains. The thousand-kernel weight of club wheat and Ethiopian wheat was 41.2–41.7 g or less by 7–8 % compared to check variant. The largest thousand –kernel weight was formed by the plants of Vdala, Schedra Nyva and Myrkhad varieties, LPP 2793 and LPP 1314 strains (48.4–54.4 g). The largest grain unit was obtained for the cultivation of Pannonicus and Kulundynka varieties (789–809 g/l) and Ethiopian 1 and LPP 1314 strains (780–785 g/l). The grain unit of club wheat was 767 g/l or more by 20 g/l and it was 780 g/l of Ethiopian wheat. On average, over five years, the study of the gluten content in the grain of wheat varieties was 22.6–40.6 %; it was 34.6–44.9 or more by 19–54 % in strains obtained by hybridization of Triticum aestivum L. / Triticum spelta L.; it was 20.6–23.9 % or less by 18–29 % in introgressive strains compared with check variant. The gluten content in club wheat grain was significantly lower during the years of the study (NIP05 = 1.3–1.7) and it was 42.0 % or more by 44 % in Ethiopian wheat, compared to Podolianka check variant (29.1 %). Only grain of Pannonicus and Kulundynka varieties of 16 wheat varieties exceeded 18–40 % and three of them (Lupus, Emerino and Chornobrova) were at the level of the check variant. The hydration ability of gluten of soft wheat varieties was in the range from 161 to 233 % and it was from 170 to 210 % in strains. The fractional composition of the protein was also in a wide range depending on the variety and the strain. Thus, the gliadin + glutenin fraction ranged from 43 to 86%, and leucosin + globulin fraction was from 12 to 57 %. Grain of Vdala, Victoria Odeska, Lastivka Odeska, Myrkhad and Suasson soft wheat varieties and LPP 1314 strain contained most gluten –forming proteins (75–86 %). Chornobrova, Pannonicus and Kokhana varieties, club wheat, NAK 46/12 and NAK61/ 12 strains (65–43 %). On average, over five years of research, the starch content in grain of wheat varieties was from 57.4 to 68.7 %. It was the highest in Myrkhad and Schedra Nyva varieties (67.3–68.7 %). This indicator in grain of wheat strains ranged from 55.1 to 63.4 %.
Key words wheat, thousand-kernel, unit, gluten content, hydration ability, starch content
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